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VERMIKOMPOS DAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT TANAMAN

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOS  DAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT TANAMAN

 

Aplikasi limbah di bidang pertanian adalah metode yang paling sederhana dari manajemen limbah . Kandungan bahan organik dan anorganik yang beracun adalah penghalang untuk manajemen limbah tersebut . Perhatian khusus harus diberikan pada kandungan logam berat yang kehadirannya dalam limbah dan kemudian ke  tanah menimbulkan bahaya bagi tanaman , hewan dan manusia .

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh vermicomposts yang dibuat dari limbah industri penyamakan kulit  terhadap pengembangan sistem akar dan biomassa tanaman serta konsentrasi logam berat dalam organ-organ tanaman ini .

Pada tahun pertama setelah aplikasi vermicomposts ,  efeknya terhadap peningkatan biomassa jagung adalah sama dengan perlakuan pupuk kandang,  tetapi secara signifikan lebih buruk daripada pemupukan dengan pupuk mineral .

Pengaruh pupuk vermicomposts terhadap peningkatan biomassa tanaman dan akar  bunga matahari dan gandum adalah sebanding dengan efek pupuk kandang ,  tetapi lebih baik daripada pemupukan mineral (pupuk anorganik).

Konsentrasi logam berat pada tanaman sanbat beragam , dalam tanaman yang diperlakukan dnegan kascing,  ternyata kandungan logam beratnya lebih rendah daripada di tanaman yang  diperlakukan dnegan pupuk anorganik atau pupuk kandang . Logam berat yang diserap tanaman ternyata diakumulasikan dalam akar ,  sedangkan kandungan kromium yang sangat tinggi dalam vermicomposts tidak menyebabkan akumulasi Cr yang berlebihan dalam tanaman .

 

Sumber:   K. Gondek, B. Filipek-Mazur. 2003. Biomass yields of shoots and roots of plants cultivated in soil amended by vermicomposts based on tannery sludge and content of heavy metals in plant tissues.  PLANT SOIL ENVIRON., 49, 2003 (9): 402–409

 

 

 

 

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KUALITAS VERMIKOMPOS

November 25th, 2013 No comments

KUALITAS  VERMIKOMPOS

 

Vermicomposting merupakan metode yang sesuai untuk stabilisasi dan mengkonversi limbah organik menjadi produk yang berguna . Untuk mempelajari efek limbah-organik terhadap kualitas kascing , dilakukanlah percobaan dengan rancangan faktorial dan tiga ulangan . Dalam percobaan ini , sedimen lumpur yang telah dikeringkan dicampur dengan bahan organik ( woodchips , daun , dan jerami gandum ) dalam empat macam proporsi pencampuran dengan sedimen lumpur ( 0 , 15 , 30 dan 45 % , V / V ) . Sifat kimia bahan organik, limbah lumpur , dan vermicomposts dianalisis.

Vermicomposts memiliki pH dan konduktivitas listrik ( EC ) yang relatif rendah. Kandungan hara pada kascing , terutama N , P , Fe , dan Zn , ternyata cukup tinggi. Dengan kualitas seperti ini, vermikompos cocok untuk digunakan dalam pertanian . Konsentrasi Logam berat pada vermicomposts , kecuali Zn , lebih rendah dari nilai baku-mutu menurut EPA-USA . Pencampuran bahan organik dengan sedimen-limbah menurunkan pH , N , Pb , Co , dan Cd , tetapi meningkatkan Ca , Mg , Fe , Cu , Mn , Zn , Ni pada vermicomposts yang dihasilkan.

Konsentrasi hara lebih tinggi pada pencampuran proporsi 30%.

Oleh karena itu , 30 % ( v / v ) pencampuran bahan organik dnegan lumpur-limbah dianjurkan untuk produksi kascing .

 

Sumber: HASHEMIMAJD, Kazem  and  JAMAATI-E-SOMARIN, Shahzad

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. 2011. Contribution of organic bulking materials on chemical quality of sewage sludge vermicompost. Ciênc. agrotec. 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VERMIKOMPOS DAN KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOS  DAN KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT

Pengaruh kascing limbah perkotaan terhadap biomasa  bahan kering dan konsentrasi logam berat dalam tanaman selada dievaluasi dalam dua percobaan rumah kaca, satu dengan Oxisol dan lainnya dnegan Alfissol.

Percobaan dirancang dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan kombinasi lima dosis pengapuran, untuk meningkatkan KB pada 40, 50, 60, 70 dan 80%, dengan lima dosis kascing 0, 25, 50, 75 dan 100 t / ha, dengan empat ulangan.

Penggunaan kascing limbah perkotaan dengan dosis lebih dari 50 t / ha membatasi hasil selada pada kedua media tanah. Namun dmeikian pada dosis hingga setinggi ini, hasil selada masih layak dan aman sebagai bahan makanan karena tidak terkontaminasi logam berat.

Sumber:

Mantovani, José Ricardo, Ferreira, Manoel Evaristo, Cruz, Mara Cristina Pessôa da, Chiba, Márcio Koiti, & Braz, Leila Trevizan. (2003). 

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Liming and urban waste vermicompost effects on production and heavy metals concentration of lettuce. Hortic. Bras. [online]. 2003, vol.21, n.3, pp. 494-500.

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VERMIKOMPOS MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS TANAH DNA HASIL TANAMAN

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOS MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS TANAH DNA HASIL TANAMAN

Penelitian ini mempelajari efek kascing-teh ( ekstrak air ) terhadap hasil dan kualitas pak choi ( Brassica rapa cv Bonsai , Chinensis group ) yang ditanam pada tiga media ( dua tanah dan media gambut – perlite ) dengan dua perlakuan pupuk ( kompos dan pupuk sintetis ) . Dampak penerapan vermikompos ini terhadap sifat kimia dan biologi media tumbuh juga dipelajari. Vermikompos teh dibuat dengan menggunakan berbagai metode ekstraksi ( non -aerasi , aerasi , aerasi dengan aditif ) dengan 01:10 ( v : v ) pupuk kascing dengan pengenceran air, dan aplikasi mingguan dengan dosis 200 mL / tanaman selama 4 minggu .

Aplikasi vermikompos teh meningkatkan produksi tanaman , jumlah karotenoid dan jumlah glucosinolate dalam jaringan tanaman . Efek ini paling menonjol pada perlakuan aplikasi kompos .  Jumlah fenolik lebih rendah pada tanaman yang diperlakukan dengan vermikompos-teh, dibandingkan dengan tanaman yang dirawat dengan hanya larutan nutrisi mineral dan air-kontrol .

Aplikasi vermikompos-teh dapat meningkatkan status hara tanaman dan media tumbuh, dan meningkatkan aktivitas biologis pada media tumbuh. Variabilitas hasil dan kualitas kimia tanaman ditunjukkan oleh variabilitas serapan N-tanaman dan akumulasi bahan kering . Aktivitas dehidrogenase dan respirasi tanah pada media tumbuh yang diperlakukan dnegan vermikompos-teh adalah sekitar 50 % lebih tinggi dibandingkan media-tumbuh yang tidak diperlakukan.

Penelitian ini menegaskan bahwa vermikompos-teh secara positif mempengaruhi hasil dan kualitas tanaman, dan meningkatkan aktivitas biologi tanah .

Sumber:
A. Pant, T.J.K. Radovich,

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N.V. Hue and  N.Q. Arancon. 2011.  Effects of Vermicompost Tea (Aqueous Extract) on Pak Choi Yield, Quality, and on Soil Biological Properties. Compost Science & Utilization.Volume 19, Issue 4, 2011. p. 279-292.

 

 

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VERMIKOMPOS MENGANDUNG SUBSTANSI HUMAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOS  MENGANDUNG SUBSTANSI HUMAT

Cacing tanah telah diketahui membantu pertumbuhan tanaman dengan memperbaiki struktur tanah ,  selain itu ternyata cacing tanah juga menghasilkan substansi humat yang dilengkapi dnegan aktivitas seperti hormon .

Suspensi sel Daucus carota ( wortel ) diperlakukan dengan derivatif auksin ( 2,4- D = asam 2,4 – dichlorophenoxyacetic , IAA = indole – 3 -acetic acid dan NAA = asam 1 – Naphthylacetic ) dan substansi humat yang bobot molekulnya rendah ( HEf ) , yang diperoleh dari kotoran cacing tanah Nicodrilus caliginosus dan Allolobophora rosea , yang memiliki aktivitas seperti auksin . HEf , pada konsentrasi 200 mg C l – l , menyebabkan peningkatan pertumbuhan sel wortel , ditentukan oleh volume sel , mirip dengan 2,4- D ;  perubahan morfologi yang disebabkan oleh H Ef mirip dengan yang disebabkan oleh IAA . Derivatif auksin dan materi humat yang diuji ternyata mampu merangsang aktivitas glutamat dehidrogenase ( GDH ) , glutamin sintetase ( GS ) dan dehidrogenase malat ( MDH ) . Pada sel-sel wortel diperlakukan dengan HEf atau IAA , dapat ditemukan GDH dan MDH isoenzim dan polimorfisme yang sama . Penambahan H Ef atau turunan auksin sel wortel menyebabkan peningkatan asam amino bebas oksaloasetat dan α – ketoglutarat .

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa HEf mempengaruhi metabolisme nitrat , memiliki aktivitas seperti auksin, yaitu asam kuat dan meningkatkan peptida , karbohidrat dan kandungan C-alifatik .  Bahan-bahan yang efektif dalam HEf  bersifat sangat asam dan bobot molekulnya rendah .

Cacing tanah sangat penting dalam humogenesis karena kotorannya mengandung substansi humat yang dapat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman melalui efek fisiologis .

 

Sumber:

A. Muscolo, F. Bovalo, F. Gionfriddo, S. Nardi. 1999.

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Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism. Soil Biology & Biochemistry – SOIL BIOL BIOCHEM 01/1999; 31(9):1303-1311. 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MKT VERMIKOMPOS UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS TANAH

November 25th, 2013 No comments


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VERMIKOMPOS UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS TANAH

Dalam rangka untuk mengetahui pengaruh vermikompos (kascing) terhadap sifat fisik dan kimia tanah , dilakukan percobaan dengan  split plot berdasarkan rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga ulangan . Sifat fisik dan kimia tanah meliputi bobot isi tanah, densitas partikel , porositas total , kapasitas menahan air , kapasitas lapang , titik layu permanen , kapasitas air tersedia , pH , karbon organik dan konduktivitas listrik . Enam dosis pupuknya ( T1 = kontrol, T2 = pupuk kimia , T3 = 20 ton kascing + 1/2 T2 , T4 = 20 ton / kascing hac + 1/2 T2 , T5 = 40 ton kascing + 1/2 T2 dan T6 = 40 ton / kascing hac ) dan tiga macam aplikasi tahun , satu tahun fertilisasi (1385 ) , dua tahun berturut-turut pemupukan (1385 dan 1386) dan tiga tahun berturut-turut (1385 , 1386, 1387 ) .

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi pupuk ke tanah secara signifikan meningkatkan porositas total , kapasitas menahan air , kapasitas lapang , titik layu permanen , kapasitas air tersedia , konduktivitas listrik , karbon organik dan menurunkan bobot isi tanah, partikel density dan pH,  dibandingkan dengan kontrol . Dalam hal tahun aplikasi pupuk ternyata tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap sifat fisik tanah,  kecuali FC , ​​PWP , AWC , pH , OC dan EC . Interaksi di antara tahun aplikasi pupuk berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap kepadatan partikel dan kapasitas lapangan .

Sumber:

Z. Ahmad Abadi , M. Ghajar Sepanlou , S. Rahimi Alashti . Effect of Vermicompost on Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil. 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Aplikasi Vermikompos pada ubijalar

October 26th, 2013 No comments

SOEMARNO-Aplikasi Vermikompos pada ubijalar

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PUPUK ORGANIK DAN MIKORHIZA

January 18th, 2012 No comments

teknologi PUPUK ORGANIK PLUS mikorhiza

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