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PENCEMARAN TANAH — Transformasi logam berat beracun

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  Transformasi logam berat beracun

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Efisiensi fitoremediasi juga dipengaruhi oleh bioavailabilitas logam dalam tanah untuk dapat diserap oleh akar tanaman. Bakteri dapat mengubah logam berat beracun menjadi bentuk-bentuk yang lebih mudah diserap oleh akar tanaman. Sebagai contoh, bakteri dapat meningkatkan akumulasi Se dalam tanaman dengan mengurangi selenate menjadi Se organik , dan bentuk organoselenium seperti Semet yang lebih cepat dapat diserap oleh akar daripada bentuk-bentuk anorganiknya .

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perubahan relatif  Cu organik , Zn dan Pb-organik , masing-masing  sebesar  +5 % , +23 % , +3 % pada rizosfir yang terinfeksi , dan 0,8 % , -3 % , -2 % pada rizosfer tidak terinfeksi . Dengan demikian , sejumlah besar Cu , Zn dan Pb diikat oleh bahan organik dalam  rhizosfer yang terinfeksi bakteri.

Rhizobateria tanah juga bisa langsung mempengaruhi bioavailabilitas logam dengan jalan mengubah sifat kimia , seperti pH , kandungan bahan organik , potensial redoks , dll.   Hal ini dapat membantu pencucian kontaminan dari tanah . Bioavailabilitas logam berat dalam tanah merupakan fungsi kelarutan ; dimana pH dan kandungan bahan organik menjadi faktor pengendalinya.

Sebagai contoh, strain Pseudomonas maltophilia mampu mereduksi  Cr6+ (toksik dan mobil) menjadi Cr3+ (tidak mobil) , dan juga untuk meminimalkan mobilitas ion beracun lainnya seperti Hg++ , Pb++ , dan Cd++ .

 

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