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VEGETASI MENGURANGI EFEK PULAU-PANAS-KOTA

November 21st, 2013 No comments

VEGETASI  MENGURANGI  EFEK PULAU-PANAS-KOTA

Tutupan vegetasi di daerah perkotaan dan sekitarnya memodulasi besarnya efek pulau panas kota (Urban Heat Island – UHI ) .

Variasi musiman UHI dikaji dengan menggunakan Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS ) , pengamatan meteorologi permukaan, dan Model Weather Research and Forecasting ( WRF ).

Sebuah pembedaan dibuat antara UHI permukaan lahan yang diamati oleh satelit dan UHI dekat permukaan tanah yang diamati dengan mengukur suhu udara .

UHI Permukaan lahan ditemukan tinggi di malam hari sepanjang tahun, tetapi menurun selama musim hujan . UHI Siang hari relatif rendah atau bahkan menunjukkan sebuah pulau dingin perkotaan sepanjang tahun, tetapi meningkat selama musim hujan .

UHI suhu udara dekat permukaan menunjukkan kecenderungan yang serupa dnegan UHI suhu permukaan di malam hari . Pada siang hari , UHI suhu udara tetap konstan sepanjang tahun .

Analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa UHI siang hari di permukaan tanah berkorelasi dengan perbedaan fraksi vegetasi antara daerah perkotaan dan sekitarnya , dan  pada tingkat lebih rendah juga berkorelasi dengan insolation siang hari.

Pada malam hari, UHI berkorelasi dengan stabilitas atmosfer malam hari dan hanya berkorelasi lemah dengan perbedaan tutupan vegetasi dan insolation siang hari .

Simulasi WRF dengan single-layer Urban Canopy Model yang diinisialisasi dengan data MODIS , terutama untuk parameter fraksi perkotaan . Simulasi dapat mewakili variasi musim yang berbeda dari kedua jenis UHI . Model ini digunakan untuk menguji dampak perubahan fraksi vegetasi di daerah perkotaan , menunjukkan bahwa vegetasi meningkat akan mengurangi UHI permukaan tanah dan UHI suhu udara di malam hari , serta UHI permukaan tanah pada siang hari .

 

Sumber: Cui, Yu Yan, Benjamin de Foy, 2012.  Seasonal Variations of the Urban Heat Island at the Surface and the Near-Surface and Reductions due to Urban Vegetation in Mexico City. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol.,

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51, 855–868.

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MITIGASI PULAU-PANAS-KOTA DENGAN VEGETASI

November 13th, 2013 No comments

MITIGASI PULAU-PANAS-KOTA DENGAN VEGETASI

 

Kuantifikasi  lapisan-kanopi Pulau Panas Kota (UHI) telah secara substansial mendapatkan perhatian banyak penelitian. Peningkastan suhu udara perkotaan mempengaruhi kenyamanan manusia, kesehatan dan produktivitas kerja.

 

Selain itu, urbanisasi diproyeksikan akan semakin meningkat di masa mendatang. Dalam konteks perencanaan perkotaan dan perubahan iklim, introduksi vegetasi hijau dan daerah perairan terbuka telah dihipotesiskan sebagai sarana efektif untuk memperbaiki kenyamanan lingkungan kota bagi manusia.

 

Banyak penelitian telah mempelajari peran vegetasi dan permukaan yang tertutup air dalam mengurangi efek pulau panas perkotaan dengan menggunakan strategi penelitian yang berbeda-beda. Hasil-hasil penelitian ini biasnaya menunjukkan berkurangnya UHI leh adanya vegetasi hijau yang tinggi. Hal yang dianggap aneh adalah bahwa penutup permukaan air yang luas (besar) meningkatkan efek pulau panas perkotaan (Theeuwes

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et al., 2012).

 

(sumber: Theeuwes, N.E., G.J. Steeneveld, R.J. Ronda, B.G. Heusinkveld dan A.A.M. Holtslag. 2012.  Mitigation of the urban heat island effect using vegetation and water bodies. 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