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SFM-PHL — BIODIVERSITAS VEGETASI POHON KOTA

December 13th, 2013 No comments

SFM-PHL — BIODIVERSITAS VEGETASI POHON KOTA

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Suatu vegetasi pohon yang lebih beraneka-ragam dibutuhkan dalam lanskap perkotaan untuk menjaga kemungkinan gangguan hama dan penyakit .

Rimbawan perkotaan dan arborists kota menggunakan pedoman berikut untuk keragaman pohon di suatu wilayah kota :

(1) menanam suatu species tidak lebih dari 10% dari keseluruhan spesies , (2) suatu genus tidak lebih dari 20% dari keseluruhan genus dan (3) tidak lebih dari 30% dari setiap Famili.  Strip atau blok yang seragam (spesies, kultivar, atau klon yang adaptif ) harus tersebar di seluruh kota untuk mencapai kemerataan spasial dan keanekaragaman hayatinya.

Istilah-istilah seperti “monokultur”, “kultivar”, dan “clone” digunakan sebagai dasar pemikiran dalam rekomendasi tanam.

Potensi ketidakcocokan suatu spesies dengan  kualitas habitat setempat telah diteliti oleh banyak peneliti.

 

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PANEN AIR HUJAN – MENANAM POHON KOTA

December 10th, 2013 No comments

PANEN AIR HUJAN -  MENANAM POHON KOTA

Kesalahan dalam Penanaman Pohon, yaitu  mancampur tanah urugan lubang-tanam dengan bahan organik.

Masalahnya adalah bahwa  pencampuran bahan organik itu hanya terjadi dalam lubang tanam. Apa yang terjadi kalau akar menembus dindinh lubang tanam dan  memasuki tanah asli di sekitarnya?

Karena tanah asli lebih padat, akar pohon kemudian bereaksi dengan cara yang sama seperti yang terjadi dalam wadah bibit ketika akar menyentuh dinding wadah bibit.  Akar tumbuh mengelilingi tepi batas lubag tanam dan tumbuh kembali melengkung ke dalam lubang tanam yang kualitas tanahnya lebih gembur.  Akar pohon tidak mampu menembus  tanah asli di sekitar lubang tanam, dan akhirnya menghasilkan pertumbuhan tajuk pohon yang terhambat .
Sebagai gantinya, dapat dilakukan hal-hal:


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  1. Pilih jenis tanaman pohon yang mentolerir kondisi tanah yang ada
  2.      Gunakan tanah yang ada untuk pengurukan lubang tanam, tanpa dicampur bahan organik
  3. Jika tanah benar-benar buruk kualitasnya, maka dapat mengganti seluruh situs penanaman dengan tanah lapisan atas
  4.      Mulsa pohon dengan mulsa organik , secara bertahap memperbaiki kondisi tanah dari seluruh wilayah mulsa

 

Tree planting mistake - Amending soil

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PANEN AIR HUJAN – POHON KOTA DI ZONE PERKERASAN

December 10th, 2013 No comments

PANEN AIR HUJAN  -  POHON KOTA DI ZONE PERKERASAN

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Hambatan utama untuk membangun vegetasi pepohonan di lahan perkotaan yang diperkeras (beraspal) adalah kurangnya volume tanah yang mencukupi untuk pertumbuhan akar pohon .

Tanah di bawah trotoar biasanya dipadatkan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan menahan beban dan standar rekayasa teknis. Hal ini seringkali menghalangi pertumbuhan akar pohon ,  akan mempunyai volume tanah yang terbatas, tidak mencukupi suplai air, hara dan oksigennya.  Sehingga  pohon perkotaan yang sebagian besar akarnya berada di bawah trotoar tumbuh buruk dan biasanya mati sebelum waktu tuanya . Diperkirakan pohon perkotaan dengan kondisi lingkungan tumbuh seperti ini mempunyai umur rata-rata 7-10 tahun , padahal diharapkan pohon tersebut dapat tumbuh selama 50 tahun atau lebih  (kalau kondisi tanah tempat tumbuhnya cukup baik ). Pohon-pohon yang bertahan hidup dalam desain perkerasan seperti itu seringkali  mengganggu integritas trotoar . Pohon yang hidup lebih tua dapat menyebabkan merusak trotoar ketika akar tumbuh langsung di bawah trotoar dan tumbuh-kembang sejalan dengan umur pohon.  Rusaknya  lapisan perkerasan dapat menimbulkan bahaya .

Perbaikan trotoar seringkali mengakibatkan kerusakan akar pohon , dan mengakibatkan gangguan pertumbuhan pohon dan kematian pohon.

Suatu alat baru untuk pembentukan pohon perkotaan adalah desain ulang seluruh profil trotoar untuk memenuhi kebutuhan beban untuk instalasi perkerasan struktural , sambil mendorong pertumbuhan akar pohon menembus memasuki lapisan tanah yang lebih dalam.   Substrat trotoar baru, yang disebut ‘ tanah struktural ‘ , telah dikembangkan dan diuji sehingga dapat dipadatkan untuk memenuhi persyaratan rekayasa untuk permukaan beraspal , namun memiliki kualitas yang memungkinkan akar pohon untuk tumbuh secara leluasa ke arah  bawah dan jauh dari permukaan trotoar , sehingga mengurangi efek terangkatnya trotoar oleh akar pohon .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

http://www.hort.cornell.edu/uhi/outreach/csc/article.html

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PANEN AIR HUJAN – FISIOLOGI AKAR POHON KOTA

December 10th, 2013 No comments


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PANEN AIR HUJAN  -  FISIOLOGI  AKAR POHON  KOTA

 

Bagaimana akar pohon dapat tumbuh dan berkembang menjadi jaringan yang luas dan mampu memegang pohon yang tingginya 100 feet di  udara , menahan angin dengan kecepatan 50 mil per jam ?

Akar pohon tumbuh dan berkembang dalam tanah, dan berinteraksi dengan tajuk pohon dan dengan tanah di mana pohon itu tumbuh .

Akar pohon berfungsi untuk “anchorage”, penyerapan hara dan air dari tanah, dan penyimpanan sebagian hasil fotosintesis . Peekembangan sistem akar tergantung pada jenis tanaman , kualitas tanah , dan kondisi lingkungan tempat tumbuhnya pohon.

Sebuah sistem akar pohon harus seimbang dengan sistem tajuknya, tetapi bukan dalam hal bobot dan atau dimensinya . Sistem akar harus mampu memasok tajuknya dengan sejumlah air dan hara yang cukup sehingga  tajuk pohon dapat memproduksi cukup karbohidrat untuk mendukung pertumbuhan sistem akar . Keseimbangan ini akan terganggu kalau terjadi pemangkasan cabang dan ranting , gangguan pada akar , serangan hama atau penyakit .

Akar tumbuh dan berkembang secara internal ,  untuk melakukan hal ini , akar memiliki beberapa bagian , digambarkan sebagai berikut :

TUDUNG AKAR .   Ini adalah bagian akar yang letaknya paling ujung.  Tudung akar ini melindungi ujung akar pada saat akar tumbuh menembus material tanah.  Sel-sel tua pada tudung ini akan mengelupas dan mempermudah gerakan akar menembus massa tanah . Sel-sel ini secara terus-menerus diganti .

MERISTEM UJUNG (Apical Maristem).   Ini merupakan bagian akar yang menyediakan sel-sel untuk tudung akar dan sel-sel pada zone elongasi di belakang tudung akar.

ZONE  Pemanjangan.  Zone ini mempunyai sel-sel yang aktif membelah dan memperpanjang diri, dan perpanjangan pada zone ini akan mendorong tudung akar menembus tanah.

ZONE BULU AKAR  atau ZONE DIFERENSIASI.   Ini adalah zone dimana sel-sel mengembangkan bentuk yang lebih matang dan dibedakan menjadi epidermis dan korteks . Bulu akar terbentuk pada epidermis atau lapisan permukaan sel . Bulu akar berfungsi untuk menyerap air dan hara tanaman , dan hidup hanya untuk waktu singkat .  Bulu akar tidak akan tumbuh menjadi akar lateral.  Tidak semua jenis pohon mempunyai bulu akar, mereka ini menyerap air dan hara melalui sel-sel epidermis yang berdinding tipis . Jenis  pohon lainnya memiliki bulu akar yang berlangsung selama beberapa tahun . Dalam jaringan korteks  terdapat endodermis , Pericycle , floem , dan xilem .

Akar Lateral.   Daerah di belakang belakang daerah bulu akar ,  terbentuk akar-akar lateral.  Akar-akar lateral ini mendorong tudung akar dan jaringan meristem apikal menembus memasuki zone tanah yang baru.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PANEN AIR HUJAN – DISAIN LUBANG TANAM POHON KOTA

December 10th, 2013 No comments

PANEN AIR HUJAN -   DISAIN LUABNG TANAM POHON KOTA

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Pangkal pohon, sering disebut sebagai lubang TANAM pohon, merupakan salah satu desain perkotaan yang penting dan seringkali diabaikan.

Di  Toronto,  disain lubang tanam pohon kota ini telah mendapatkan banyak perhatian dari warga kota dan pemerintah kota.  Warga kota secara reguler membersihkan bahan perkerasan (semen) dari zone di sekitar pangkal pohon.  Semen ini menjadi semacam “peti mati”  yang menghalangi meresapnya air hujan ke dalam tanah.

Lubang-lubang tanam pohon kota Toronto telah direnovasi , penutup semen di sekitar pangkal dibongkar, ditambahkan tanah untuk melindungi akar pohon.  Pagar besi dipasang di sekitar pangkal pohon untuk menjaga pejalan kaki dari berjalan dan menginjak-injak zone akar pohon.  Fitur-fitur baru ditambahkan untuk memperindah penampilan lubang tanam pohon kota.

 

 

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Kandungan logam berat pada kulit batang pohon kota – Indikator Polusi Udara

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

Kandungan logam berat pada kulit batang pohon kota – Indikator Polusi Udara

 

Kulit batang dari tujuh spesies pohon dianalisis dari 32 lokasi yang memiliki tingkat polusi udara berbeda-beda di Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Konsentrasi Pb, Zn, dan Cu ditentukan dengan spektrometri serapan atom.

Konsentrasi Pb dan Zn sebesar  1,9-159,8 dan 16,5-659,1 mikrogram / ​​g  berat kering ,  konsentrasi ini berkorelasi dengan volume lalu lintas; hal ini menunjukkan pencemaran dari sumber antropogenik.

Hasil yang diperoleh untuk Cu sebesar  4,2-20,7 mikrogram / ​​g  berat kering, meskipun lebih rendah namun  masih signifikan;  namun tidak menunjukkan korelasi dengan kepadatan lalu lintas.

Penelitian ini menegaskan bahwa jenis pohon Azadirachta indica (Dogoyaro – pohon lokal yang sangat populer) dapat digunakan bio-indikator pencemaran udara oleh logam berat.

 

Sumber: Odukoya O.O., T.A.Arowolo  dan O.

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Bamgbose. 2000. Pb, Zn, and Cu levels in tree barks as indicator of atmospheric pollution. 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KEMAMPUAN POHON KOTA MENYERAP POLUTAN LOGAM

November 23rd, 2013 No comments


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KEMAMPUAN POHON KOTA MENYERAP POLUTAN LOGAM

 

Metode analisis  SEM – EDAX untuk mengetahui partikel yang diendapkan pada kedua sisi daun menunjukkan bahwa 50-60 % termasuk ke dalam kelas partikel halus ( D < 2 m ) secara tunggal atau berkumpul ddalam bentuk  aglomerat dari berbagai bentuk ( bulat , serpih , tidak teratur ) . Partikel-partikel ini terdistribusikan dengan kepadatan lebih tinggi pada permukaan atas daun .

Partikel halus , terutama yang berasal dari proses antropogenik ,  sering diamati di sekitar dan di atas stomata, dan hal ini dapat mempengaruhi karakteristik fisiologis daun . Berdasarkan komposisi morfologi dan kimia yang diselidiki dengan metode SEM – EDAX , partikel yang paling melimpah adalah jelaga ( C ) dan debu ( Si , Al , Fe , Mg , N , S , Ca , K , Cl ) dengan komponen mikronya adalah Pb , Zn , Ni , V , As, Ti , Cu , dan Cd .  Bentuk yang paling melimpah adalah partikel berbentuk agregat , dimana Pb adalah elemen utama yang berhubungan dengan unsur-unsur S , Fe , Cd , Cu , As, dan Zn yag konsnetrasinya lebih rendah.

Partikel-partikel yang disimpan pada permuakan daun sebagian besar berasal dari lalu lintas , atau dari partikel yang tersuspensi di udara.

Analisis kimia untuk mengetahui total kandungan hara daun harus mempertimbangkan akumulasi musiman Cr , Fe , Ni , Zn , dan Pb di permukaan daun A. hippocastanum dan Tilia spp .  Selama rentang waktu penelitian, konsentrasi Pb di permukaan daun menunjukkan kecenderungan menurun ( lebih teratur pada A. hippocastanum ) , sesuai dengan data deposisi massa dari atmosfer . Selain itu, konsentrasi Cu pada A. hippocastanum mengalami penurunan dan sesuai dengan deposisi massa Cu dari atmosfer di lokasi dengan atmosfer yang kaya Cu .

Tidak ada korelasi antara akumulasi Cr , Fe , Ni , dan Zn di daun dan tingkat deposisi massa dari udara , yaitu kandungan unsur dalam daun tidak mencerminkan deposisi atmosfer langsung .

Oleh karena itu , A. hippocastanum dapat disarankan sebagai biomonitor untuk polusi udara oleh Pb  dan Cu di daerah yang udaranya sangat tercemar .

 

Sumber:  Milica Tomašević dan Mira Aničić. 2010.  TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT IN URBAN TREE LEAVES AND SEM-EDAX CHARACTERISATION OF DEPOSITED PARTICLES. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. 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ESDAL NILAI EKOLOGIS POHON DAN VEGETASI KOTA

November 21st, 2013 No comments

NILAI EKOLOGIS  POHON DAN VEGETASI KOTA

Pohon dapat  membantu menyejukkan lingkungan udara kota, sehingga vegetasi pohon dianggap menjadi cara sederhana dan efektif untuk mengurangi pulau panas perkotaan.
Pohon dan vegetasi dapat menurunkan suhu permukaan dan suhu udara dengan memberikan naungan dan melalui evapotranspirasi. Permukaan yang ternaungi suhunya mungkin 11-25° C lebih dingin dibandingkan suhu puncak pada permukaan yang tidak ternaungi. Evapotranspirasi, sendiri atau dalam kombinasi dengan naungan dapat membantu mengurangi suhu musim panas puncak dengan 1-5 ° C.
Pohon dan vegetasi yang paling berguna sebagai strategi mitigasi bila ditanam di lokasi strategis di sekitar bangunan atau untuk menaungi trotoar di tempat parkir dan di jalan-jalan raya kota. Para peneliti telah menemukan bahwa menanam pohon berdaun rimbun menghadap ke barat biasanya paling efektif untuk mendinginkan bangunan, terutama jika pohon itu menaungi jendela dan bagian atap bangunan.
Penggunaan pohon dan vegetasi di lingkungan perkotaan membawa manfaat lainnya, seperti:

1. Mengurangi penggunaan energi: Pohon dan vegetasi yang secara langsung menaungi bangunan dapat mengurangi permintaan untuk AC.
2. Peningkatan kualitas udara dan menurunkan emisi gas rumah kaca: Dengan mengurangi permintaan energi, pohon-pohon dan vegetasi menurunkan produksi polusi udara terkait dan emisi gas rumah kaca. Mereka juga menghilangkan polutan udara dan menyimpan dan menyerap karbon dioksida.
3. Pengelolaan air hujan dan kualitas air ditingkatkan: Vegetasi mengurangi limpasan dan meningkatkan kualitas air dengan menyerap dan menyaring air hujan.
4. Mengurangi pemeliharaan perkerasan: Pohon naungan dapat memperlambat kerusakan jalan trotoar, mengurangi jumlah pemeliharaan yang diperlukan.
5. Peningkatan kualitas hidup: Pohon dan vegetasi memberikan nilai estetika, habitat bagi banyak spesies, dan dapat mengurangi kebisingan.

(sumber: http://www.epa.gov/hiri/mitigation/trees.htm)

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