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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – Prinsip Multilevel Energi dan Daur Ulang Material

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – Prinsip Multilevel Energi dan Daur Ulang Material

Suatu rantai makanan ekosistem akan menentukan bagaimana aliran energi dan material dapat berlangsung. Ekosistem mengalami kegagalan ketika sumberdaya yang terbarukan dieksploitasi secara berlebihan , dan terjadi limbah yang berlebihan.

Hal ini akan dapat mengganggu dan memperlambat siklus hara , yang mengakibatkan ketidakseimbangan hara, dan akhirnya dapat mengakibatkan polusi dan gangguan lingkungan .

Daur-ulang limbah meningkatkan peluang untuk produksi material dan reproduksi organisme . Sebagai contoh, aplikasi jerami kembali ke lahan adalah cara effektif untuk mempertahankan bahan organik tanah . Namun demikian, jika jerami dikembalikan ke lahan secara langsung , ketersediaan haranya dalam tanah memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama setelah  biomasa mengalami dekomposisi . Tetapi dengan mempertimbangkan prinsip-prinsip ekologis, jerami dapat dimasukkan ke dalam rantai makanan , meningkatkan kesuburan tanah dan mengurangi polusi . Kuncinya adalah untuk menggunakan jerami untuk pakan ternak : setelah proses sakarifikasi atau ammonification , jerami tanaman dapat menjadi pakan ternak , kemudian kotoran hewan domestik diaplikasikan untuk menumbuhkan jamur yang dapat dimakan , residu media tumbuh jamur dapat digunakan untuk memberi makan cacing tanah , dan akhirnya residu cacing tanah dapat diaplikasikan ke lahan sebagai pupuk . Material yang digunakan dalam berbagai tingkatan seperti ini, sangat meningkatkan efisiensi energi.

 

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS: Adaptasi Organisme terhadap Lingkungannya

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS:  Adaptasi Organisme terhadap Lingkungannya

Kedua komponen ekosistem, yaitu organisme dan lingkungan hidupnya, menjalis hubungan yang erat dan melaksanakan pertukaran material dan energi yang kompleks .

Pertama-tama, lingkungan menyediakan bahan penting dan energi bagi organisme untuk hidupnya dan berkembang biak, yaitu udara, cahaya, air, hara dan sebagainya.

Pada saat yang sama, selama proses hidupnya, reproduksi, dan pergerakannya, organisme terus-menerus melepaskan kembali material ke lingkungannya melalui proses-proses difusi, ekskresi, atau cara-cara lainnya. Dengan demikian, organisme dan lingkunganya terus berinteraksi dan beradaptasi. Menurut prinsip ini, organisme beradaptasi dari waktu ke waktu terhadap kondisi lingkungan hidup lokal yang ada dan menjalin keseimbangan yang simpatik di antara spesies dan varietas.

Oleh karena itu, kombinasi yang cocok di antara penggarapan lahan, rotasi tanaman, dan perbaikan kualitas tanah, harus dapat meningkatkan produksi pertanian. Kualitas lingkungan dapat terdegradasi apabila dimanfaatkan secara berlebihan.

 

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PB CIRI-CIRI PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

CIRI-CIRI PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

 

“Pertanian ekologis yang  berkelanjutan” berarti keberhasilan pengelolaan sumber daya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia saat ini tanpa membahayakan kemampuan generasi mendatang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya.

Dalam konteks ini , pertanian berkelanjutan merupakaan sistem produksi yang mencoba memberikan hasil yang berkelanjutan jangka panjang melalui penggunaan teknologi pengelolaan ramah lingkungan, seperti diversifikasi tanaman , daur ulang hara, dan pengendalian hama-penyakit tanaman  secara biologis .

Pertanian berkelanjutan adalah :

  1. Ekologis : kualitas sumber daya alam dalam sistem ramah lingkungan dipertahankan atau ditingkatkan .
  2. Ekonomis : petani dapat menghasilkan makanan yang cukup untuk swasembada dan memperoleh penghasilan yang memadai.
  3. Berkeadilan sosial : sumber daya dan kekuasaan didistribusikan sedemikian rupa untuk dapat menjain hak penggunaan lahan , modal yang memadai , peluang pasar dan bantuan teknis .
  4. Humane : menghormati semua bentuk kehidupan ( tanaman, hewan , manusia ) .
  5. Adaptable : masyarakat pedesaan mampu menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan kondisi pertanian yang berlangsung secara terus menerus.

  6. Buy cheap Viagra online

 

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – ECOLOGICAL FARMING

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – ECOLOGICAL FARMING

 

Pertanian ekologis mengacu pada kemandirian agroekosistem , mendekati karakteristik material dan manajemen ekosistem alam . Manusia dan kegiatannya terintegrasi dalam sistem produksi ditandai dengan pandangan holistik produksi tumbuhan dan hewan . Pestisida dan pupuk kimia sintetis tidak digunakan .

1 . Rotasi tanaman
Sebuah skema rotasi tanaman biasanya lebih dari empat tahun . Tujuannya adalah untuk mengurangi gulma dan gangguan hama penyakit tanaman, meningkatkan keseimbangan unsur hara tanah , memperbaiki struktur tanah dan memproduksi tanaman pangan bagi manusia dan tanaman pakan bagi ternak .

2 . Usaha Peternakan
Sebagian besar ternak atau hewan merumput , memungkinkan untuk memanfaatkan pakan ternak secara lebih efisien . Sapi dan domba dapat menggunakan lahan-lahan yang tidak cocok untuk budidaya tanaman . Hal ini akan memberikan kontribusi untuk lansekap dan keanekaragaman hayati . Perawatan yang tepat dan manusiawi bagi ternak juga ditekankan dalam pertanian ekologis .

3 .  Daur Ulang Hara

Hara tanaman di daur-ulang semaksimal mungkin . Pupuk kandang dari hewan ternak dikembalikan ke tanah .  Kehilangan hara dari tanah dikurangi dengan budidaya tanaman secara tepat , termasuk penggunaan tanaman penangkap hara. Pengolahan tanah dikurangi (minimum olah tanah)  dibandingkan dengan pertanian konvensional .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

www.balticuniv.uu.se/…/1407-chapter-6-approaches-to-sustainable-agric

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – Manfaat yang lebih luas

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – Manfaat yang lebih luas

Konsep “keberlanjutan pertanian”  menekankan pentingnya keragaman pertanian . Dalam banyak kasus , hal ini berarti peningkatan keragaman makanan yang dikonsumsi oleh rumah tangga , termasuk protein ikan dari mina-padi atau dari kolam ikan , susu dan produk hewan dari sapi perah , unggas , dan kambing yang dipelihara di pekarangan rumah , sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan dari lahan pekarangan .

Pertanian ekologis ini melaporkan peningkatan yang signifikan produksi pangan , sebagai akibat dari perbaikan produktivitas tanaman, atau peningkatan intensitas tanam , atau keragaman produk ;   sejumlah surplus hasil pangan dijual ke pasar lokal .

Hal ini tampaknya ada kaitannya dengan elastisitas konsumsi pangan rumah tangga pedesaan yang mengalami beragam tingkat kerawanan pangan . Seiring dengan peningkatan produksi , begitu juga konsumsi domestik , juga ada peningkatan manfaat langsung bagi kesehatan dan gizi ibu-ibu dan anak-anak . Ketika orang-orang pedesaan makan lebih banyak makanan dan lebih beragam makanannya, ini tidak muncul dalam statistik internasional yang mengukur kinerja ekonomi .

Agroekosistem yang berkelanjutan juga memiliki efek samping yang positif , membantu untuk meningkatkan lingkungan lokal , memperkuat komunitas , dan meningkatkan kapasitas manusia .

Beberapa macam efek samping positif yang dilaporkan di berbagai negara berkembang meliputi:

  1.  Perbaikan ekosistem , termasuk retensi air tersedia dalam tanah , perbaikan akuifer ( lebih bersih untuk air minum di musim kemarau ) , mengurangi erosi tanah yang dikombinasikan dengan aplikasi bahan organik ke dalam tanah , menyebabkan penyerapan karbon lebih banyak, tanah lebih sehat , lebih besar produktivitasnya , dan peningkatan keanekaragaman hayati pertanian ;
  2. Perbaikan dan pemberdayaan masyarakat , termasuk organisasi sosial yang lebih kuat di tingkat lokal , aturan dan norma-norma baru untuk mengelola sumber daya alam secara kolektif , dan keterkaitan yang lebih baik dengan lembaga kebijakan publik;
  3. Perbaikan kapasitas manusia , termasuk kapasitas lokal untuk bereksperimen dan memecahkan masalah , mengurangi gangguan malaria di daerah mina-padi, peningkatan keberdayaan kelompok-kelompok tani yang sebelumnya terpinggirkan , peningkatan status perempuan , kesehatan anak lebih baik dan gizi, dan migrasi kelebihan tenaga kerja lokal .

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Di negara-negara industri , “pertanian” dianggap berkontribusi sangat sedikit untuk PDB , sehingga pertanian dianggap tidak penting bagi ekonomi modern . Tetapi kesimpulan semacam itu muncul karena belum semua manfaat pertanian dianalisis dan dievaluasi secara benar. Di negara-negara miskin , di mana dukungan keuangan terbatas dan pasar masih lemah , masyarakat lebih bergantung pada nilai-nilai produk dan jasa-jasa yang berasal dari lingkungan alamnya  dan dari bekerja sama satu sama lain untuk mencapai hasil bersama , dan bukannya dari kegiatan berbasis pasar .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB PRODUKTIVITAS PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PRODUKTIVITAS PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

 

Jika produktivitas jatuh dengan penerapan agroekosistem yang lebih berkelanjutan , maka lebih banyak lahan akan diperlukan untuk menghasilkan jumlah makanan yang sama , sehingga mengakibatkan kerusakan lingkungan lebih lanjut sebagai ekosistem penting secara ekologis yang dikonversi menjadi lahan pertanian . Seperti yang ditunjukkan sebelumnya , tantangannya adalah untuk mencari intensifikasi berkelanjutan dari semua sumber daya , dalam rangka meningkatkan produksi pangan . Sekarang ada sekitar 3 juta hektar lahan pertanian di Eropa , dikelola dengan praktik organik bersertifikat . Beberapa telah menyebabkan penggunaan energi yang lebih rendah (meskipun hasil yang lebih rendah , juga) ; orang lain untuk retensi hara yang lebih baik , beberapa kehilangan unsur hara yang lebih besar , dan sebagian besar penggunaan tenaga kerja yang lebih besar .

Banyak petani lainnya telah mengadopsi praktek-praktek pertanian terpadu , yang merupakan langkah atau beberapa langkah menuju keberlanjutan . Apa yang telah menjadi semakin jelas adalah bahwa banyak sistem pertanian khusus modern boros , karena para petani dengan lebih kompleks , sistem terpadu telah menemukan mereka dapat menghemat banyak masukan dibeli tanpa kehilangan keluar pada profitabilitas atau bahkan hasil . Beberapa dari pemotongan ini digunakan adalah substansial , yang lainnya relatif kecil . Dengan mengadopsi penargetan dan presisi metode yang lebih baik , ada sedikit pemborosan dan jadi lebih menguntungkan bagi lingkungan hidup . Petani kemudian dapat membuat pemotongan lebih besar dalam penggunaan input , setelah mereka mengganti beberapa teknologi regeneratif untuk input eksternal, seperti kacang-kacangan untuk pupuk anorganik , atau habitat yang lebih baik untuk predator hama untuk pestisida . Akhirnya , petani dapat menggantikan beberapa atau semua input eksternal sepenuhnya dari waktu ke waktu , setelah mereka telah mengembangkan jenis baru pertanian ditandai dengan tujuan-tujuan baru dan teknologi .

Perbaikan produksi pangan dapat terjadi melalui satu atau lebih dari empat mekanisme yang berbeda berikut:

  1.  Intensifikasi komponen tunggal dari sistem pertanian , dengan sedikit perubahan ke seluruh pertanian, termasuk intensifikasi pekarangan rumah dengan sayuran dan / atau tanaman pohon , sayuran di pematang sawah , dan pengenalan kolam ikan atau sapi perah .
  2. Penambahan elemen produktif baru ke sistem pertanian , seperti ikan atau udang di lahan sawah-padi , atau agroforestry  yang dapat menyediakan tambahan total produksi pertanian dan / atau pendapatan , tetapi tidak selalu mempengaruhi produktivitas tanaman.
  3. Lebih baik memanfaatkan sumberdaya alam untuk meningkatkan total produksi pertanian , terutama air (dengan pemanenan air hujan dan penjadwalan irigasi ) dan tanah (dengan reklamasi lahan kritis ) , yang mengarah ke tanaman lahan kering baru dan / atau peningkatan pasokan air irigasi untuk tanaman , dan dengan demikian dapat meningkatkan intensitas tanam .

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  5. Perbaikan hasil per hektar melalui pengenalan unsur-unsur baru ke dalam sistem regeneratif pertanian , seperti kacang-kacangan dan manajemen hama terpadu , dan varietas tanaman baru dan kultivar lokal yang sesuai dan pemeliharaan ternak.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB PERTANIAN BERLANJUT – MEMPERBAIKI AGROEKOSISTEM

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS -  MEMPERBAIKI AGROEKOSISTEM

 

Pertanian ekologis menekankan dividen potensial yang DAPAT DIHASILKAN dari kegiatan memanfaatkan dengan cara yang terbaik genotipe ( G ) tanaman dan hewan, dan kondisi agro – ekologi ( AE ) di mana mereka tumbuh atau dipelihara.

Hasilnya merupakan hasil interaksi G x AE . Keberlanjutan pertanian menunjukkan fokus pada perbaikan genotipe melalui berbagai macam pendekatan biologi modern , serta peningkatan pemahaman tentang manfaat manajemen ekologi dan agronomi , manipulasi , dan mendesain ulang agroekosistem.

Tetapi mengubah sistem pertanian menjadi desain yang lebih berkelanjutan merupakan masalah kompleks, dan umumnya membutuhkan lanskap atau pendekatan bioregional untuk restorasi atau manajemennya . Sebuah agroekosistem tertentu dirancang untuk menghasilkan pangan dan serat , namun demikian pertanian juga merupakan unit produksi , dan juga merupakan bagian dari lanskap yang lebih luas di mana di dalamnya ada fungsi-fungsi ekosistem yang penting . Untuk keberlanjutannya , perlu dikembangkan interaksi-interaksi di antara agroekosistem dan seluruh lanskap pertanian lain dan habitat liar (misalnya:  lahan rawa, hutan , habitat riparian ) , serta sistem sosial dalam pengadaan pangan . Lanskap mosaik dengan berbagai habitat pertanian dan habitat non – budidaya, biasanya sangat cocok untuk burung dan satwa liar lainnya .

Ada beberapa jenis teknologi dan praktek-praktek yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan pasokan dan penggunaan faktor alam di dalam dan di sekitar agroekosistem , yaitu:

  1.     Pengelolaan hama terpadu , yang menggunakan pencegahan melalui pengembangan ketahanan ekosistem dan keanekaragaman hama , penyakit , dan gulma , dan hanya menggunakan pestisida ketika pilihan lain tidak efektif .
  2.     Pengelolaan hara terpadu , menyeimbangkan kebutuhan untuk memperbaiki nitrogen dalam sistem pertanian dengan kebutuhan untuk mengimpor pupuk anorganik dan organik , dan untuk mengurangi kehilangan unsur hara melalui kontrol aliran permukaan dan erosi .
  3.     Konservasi tanah , yang mengurangi pengolahan tanah ,  sehingga tanah dapat dilestarikan melalui minimum erosi dan lengas-tanah yang tersedia dapat digunakan lebih efisien .
  4.     Tanaman penutup tanah, yang tumbuh di luar musim atau bersama dengan tanaman utama , membantu melindungi tanah dari erosi , mengendalikan ketersediaan hara dan kontrol hama , mempertahankan tanah yang sehat , meningkatkan infiltrasi air hujan dan penyimpanan air dalam tanah .
  5.     Agroforestri , yang menggabungkan multifungsi pohon ke dalam sistem pertanian , dan secara kolektif mengelola sumberdaya hutan di sekitarnya

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  7.     Budidaya Perikanan, yang mencakup ikan , udang , dan sumberdaya air lainnya ke dalam sistem pertanian , seperti sawah irigasi dan tambak ikan , dan sebagainya yang dapat meningkatkan produksi protein .
  8.     Pemanenan air hujan di daerah lahan kering , yang dapat berarti bahwa sebelumnya air hujan dibiarkan “hilang” , dimanfaatkan untuk  mengelola lahan-lahan marjinal, dan tambahan tanaman dapat tumbuh di petak-petak lahan kecil , karena retensi curah hujan yang lebih baik .
  9.     Reintegrasi ternak ke dalam sistem pertanian , seperti pemeliharaan ternak perah  dan unggas , termasuk menggunakan sistem penggembalaan dan sistem cut- and- carry .  Mixed sistem tanaman-ternak memberikan banyak sinergi yang meningkatkan produksi dan memungkinkan siklus hara yang lebih baik dalam sistem pertanian .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

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Apa yabg dimaksud dengan konsep “Pertanian Ekologis yang berkelanjutan ?”

Banyak pendekatan yang telah muncul untuk mewujudkan “keberlanjutan” yang lebih besar atas sistem pertanian, baik selama masa pra – industri maupun pada jaman industri .  Hal ini termasuk biodynamic  berbasis masyarakat , Ecoagriculture , pertanian ramah lingkungan , pertanian rehat,  Pertanian rendah input,  Pertanian organik , Permaculture  berkelanjutan.

Ide-ide  keberlanjutan pertanian , tidak berarti mengesampingkan setiap teknologi atau praktik-praktek pertanian secara sembarangan. Jika teknologi bekerja untuk meningkatkan produktivitas petani , dan tidak menyebabkan kerusakan lingkungan, maka dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pertanian  keberlanjutan . Sistem pertanian yang menekankan prinsip-prinsip ini juga cenderung memiliki sejumlah fungsi dalam lanskap dan ekonomi . Mereka bersama-sama memproduksi makanan dan barang lainnya bagi petani dan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar , tetapi juga berkontribusi terhadap berbagai barang dan jasa-jasa publik , seperti air bersih , satwa liar, dan habitat bagi organisme menguntungkan , penyerapan karbon dalam tanah , perlindungan banjir , resapan air tanah , nilai-nilai keindahan dan kenyamanan lanskap , dan rekreasi / pariwisata .

Pertanian berkelanjutan berusaha untuk memanfaatkan sebaik-baiknya barang dan jasa alam , sehingga teknologi dan praktik pertanian harus diadaptasikan secara lokal .  Hal ini memungkinkan  munculnya konfigurasi baru , yang terdiri dari kepercayaan dalam organisasi sosial , dan kemitraan horizontal dan vertikal di antara lembaga-lembaga sosial , dan kepemimpinan masyarakat, pengetahuan dan  keterampilan manajemen , dan kapasitas untuk berinovasi . Sistem pertanian yang kaya dnegan  modal sosial dan modal manusia akan lebih mampu berinovasi dalam menghadapi ketidakpastian seperti perubahan iklim atau perubahan kebutuhan masyarakat akan produk-produk tertentu . Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ada kemungkinan banyak jalur menuju keberlanjutan pertanian , dan selanjutnya menyiratkan bahwa tidak ada konfigurasi tunggal teknologi , input , dan manajemen ekologis yang mungkin diterapkan secara luas . Keberlanjutan pertanian menyiratkan kebutuhan untuk menyesuaikan faktor-faktor ini dengan keadaan spesifik dari sistem pertanian , iklim , tanah , dan pertimbangan sosial.

Asumsi umum tentang “keberlanjutan pertanian” adalah bahwa ia menyiratkan pengurangan secara neto penggunaan input , sehingga membuat sistem tersebut pada dasarnya ekstensif (yaitu  membutuhkan lebih banyak lahan untuk menghasilkan jumlah makanan yang sama ) . Bukti terbaru menunjukkan bahwa inisiatif keberlanjutan pertanian sukses dan proyek-proyek timbul akibat perubahan faktor-faktor produksi pertanian , misalnya penggunaan nitrogen legume sebagai pupuk bhijau , pestisida untuk penekanan musuh alami , pengolahan tanah secara minimum.

Pendekatan intensifikasi sumberdaya adalah  membuat lebih baik penggunaan sumber daya yang ada ( tanah, air , keanekaragaman hayati ) dan teknologi . Pertanyaan kritis yang kemudian muncul adalah apa saja jenis intensifikasi yang harus diikuti . Intensifikasi dalam menggunakan modal alam, modal sosial ( masyarakat ) , dan modal manusia , dikombinasikan dengan penggunaan teknologi terbaik yang tersedia dan input ( genotipe terbaik dan manajemen ekologi terbaik ) yang meminimalkan atau menghilangkan kerusakan lingkungan; ini semua disebut konsep ” intensifikasi berkelanjutan . ”

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

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“Pertanian berkelanjutan”  merupakan suatu filosofi dalam sistem pertanian . Konsep filosofis ini berakar pada seperangkat nilai-nilai yang mencerminkan kesadaran dari realitas ekologi dan realitas sosial . Hal ini melibatkan prosedur desain dan manajemen yang bekerja sama dengan proses alamiah untuk melestarikan semua sumber daya dan meminimalkan limbah dan kerusakan lingkungan , sambil menjaga atau meningkatkan profitabilitas pertanian . Bekerja sama dengan proses-proses alami adalah sangat penting . Sistem pertanian berkelanjutan yang dirancang untuk mengambil keuntungan secara maksimum dari siklus hara dan air tanah yang ada , aliran energi , organisme tanah yang menguntungkan , dan kontrol hama secara alamiah . Dengan memanfaatkan siklus-siklus yang ada , kerusakan lingkungan dapat dihindari atau diminimalkan . Sistem tersebut juga bertujuan untuk menghasilkan makanan yang bergizi , dan tidak terkontaminasi dengan residu yang membahayakan kesehatan manusia .

Dalam prakteknya sistem pertanian tersebut cenderung untuk mengurangi atau menghindari penggunaan pupuk sintetis , pestisida sintetis , hormon pertumbuhan sintetis, dan konsentrat (adetif) pakan ternak . Zat-zat ini biasanya ditolak atas dasar ketergantungannya pada sumberdaya yang tidak dapat terbarukan , potensi gangguan lingkungan , dan dampak samping pada organisme tanah , satwa liar , kesehatan ternak dan kesehatan manusia .

Sistem pertanian berkelanjutan lebih mengandalkan rotasi tanaman , residu (sisa) tanaman , pupuk organik hewan , kacang-kacangan , pupuk hijau , limbah organik off-farm , budidaya mekanis yang sesuai atau pengolahan tanah minimal untuk mengoptimalkan aktivitas pengendalian hama secara biologis dan alamiah, dan dengan demikian mempertahankan kesuburan tanah dan produktivitas tanaman .

Selain itu, varietas yang tahan , dan kontrol hama secara biologis , biorasional , dan budaya lokal digunakan untuk mengelola hama , gulma dan penyakit . Strategi perawatan kesehatan yang bersifat preventif , seperti perubahan pola makan , meningkatkan latihan , dan perubahan pemeliharaan yang digunakan untuk menjaga kesehatan hewan .

Potensi dari pendekatan ini , jauh melampaui ekspresi yang ada sekarang , yang sebagian besar masih terbatas pada substitusi produk dan praktek-praktek ramah lingkungan . Kemajuan yang lebih signifikan dapat diharapkan dapat terjadi akibat dari perkembangan ilmu dan seni dalam desain agroekosistem dan manajemen agroekosistem.

 

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PB PENGELOALAN LAHAN DALAM PERTANIAN BERLANJUT

December 4th, 2013 No comments

PENGELOALAN LAHAN DALAM PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS

 

Pertanian ekologi menggambarkan lanskap yang mendukung produksi pertanian dan konservasi keanekaragaman hayati, bekerja secara harmonis untuk meningkatkan pencaharian masyarakat pedesaan.

Banyak masyarakat pedesaan yang secara mandiri berlatih pertanian ekologis selama ribuan tahun, selama abad terakhir banyak lanskap pertanian ini telah berubah menjadi pola penggunaan lahan yang beragam, dengan beberapa daerah menerapkan praktek-praktek pertanian intensif tanpa memperhatikan dampak keanekaragaman hayati, dan daerah lainnya dilindungi sepenuhnya untuk habitat atau perlindungan DAS. Sebuah gerakan pertanian ekologi baru sekarang mendapatkan momentum untuk bersatu dengan pengelola lahan dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya dari lingkungan yang beragam untuk menemukan cara-cara yang kompatibel untuk melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati sambil meningkatkan produksi pertanian.

Pertanian ekologi merupakan suatu strategi konservasi sumberdaya alam dan sekaligus menjadi strategi pembangunan pedesaan. Pertanian ekologi mengakui produsen dan masyarakat pertanian sebagai kunci-penjaga ekosistem dan keanekaragaman hayati, dan memungkinkannya untuk memainkan peran tersebut secara efektif. Pertanian ekologi menerapkan pendekatan ekosistem terpadu untuk mengelola lanskap pertanian mencapai tiga pilar:  konservasi biodiversitas,  mendukung produksi pertanian, dan meningkatkan mata pencaharian petani.  Untuk mencapai tujuan pertanian ekologi biasanya dibutuhkan kerjasama atau koordinasi di antara semua pemangku kepentingan yang secara kolektif bertanggung jawab untuk mengelola komponen-kunci dari sebuah bentang lahan.

Lanskap pertanian yang bertujuan untuk mencapai tujuan pertanian ekologis ( konservasi keanekaragaman hayati ditingkatkan , peningkatan produksi pangan , dan kehidupan pedesaan ditingkatkan ) harus dikelola dengan cara yang melindungi dan melestarikan kawasan alam dan meningkatkan habitat satwa liar dan fungsi ekosistem , bekerja sama dengan masyarakat lokal untuk menjamin kepentingannya.

Praktek pengelolaan lahan dalam pertanian ekologis antara lain:

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  1. Merencanakan dan mengelola kawasan lindung bersama dengan masyarakat pertanian lokal , pasturalis , dan masyarakat hutan di lahannya masing-masing. Daerah konservasi komunitas di lahan milik petani dan penggembala penting untuk pengelolaan biodiversitas berbasis ekosistem . Semakin banyak keterlibatan masyarakat dalam pengelolaan kawasan lindung , semakin sukses lanskap berkontribusi dalam tiga sasaran pertanian ekologis.
  2. Menghubungkan daerah unfarmed , fragmen hutan , dan lahan basah dalam lanskap pertanian untuk mengembangkan jaringan habitat dan koridor yang mendukung dan memperluas jangkauan spesies liar . Pendekatan ini sangat berguna untuk spesies yang bermigrasi , yang dapat mencakup jasad-jasad penyerbuk dan musuh alami bagi hama pertanian .
  3. Mengurangi konversi kawasan alam menjadi daerah-daerah pertanian,  dengan jalan meningkatkan produktivitas pertanian , kehutanan , lahan penggembalaan, perikanan  yang ada saat ini .
  4. Memodifikasi sistem pertanian sehingga mereka meniru vegetasi alam dan proses-proses ekologisnya . Mengintegrasikan pohon, semak , dan rumput ke dalam sistem produksi pertanian sehingga dapat meningkatkan jasa-jasa ekosistem di seluruh lanskap .
  5. Mengelola limbah pertanian untuk melindungi ekosistem di sekitarnya dengan mendorong pergeseran dari pola input-intensif  menjadi pola ‘pengetahuan intensif ‘ dalam praktek-praktek pertanian . Hal ini mungkin termasuk integrasi tanaman , ternak , dan sistem hara, aplikasi yang lebih tepat dari pupuk organik dan non – organik , dan rotasi tanaman untuk meningkatkan kesuburan tanah .
  6. Mendorong strategi pengelolaan tanah, air , dan vegetasi yang membatasi dampak negatif terhadap ekosistem sekitarnya . Praktek ini meliputi konservasi tanah , sistem bera , tnaman pupuk hijau, tumpangsari , dan diversifikasi ternak .

 

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PB STRATEGI PERTANIAN – Membangun Kekuatan Sistem di atas Tanah

December 4th, 2013 No comments

STRATEGI PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS -  Membangun Kekuatan Sistem di atas Tanah

  1. Memilih tanaman dan varietas tahan terhadap gangguan hama lokal (bersamaan dnegan keunggulan kualitas lainnya seperti produksi,  rasa , dll. )
  2. Menggunakan kepadatan tanam yang tepat ( dan tanaman pendampingnya)
  3.  Tanaman perimeter ( tanaman penjebak hama) yang lebih menarik bagi hama tertentu daripada tanaman ekonomi ( s ) untuk mencegat masuknya hama .
  4. Membuat batas-batas lapangan dan zonasi lahan yang menarik bagi serangga yang menguntungkan . Hal ini biasanya melibatkan penanaman campuran tanaman berbunga di sekitar atau di dalam bidang lahan untuk memberikan tempat tinggal dan makanan bagi serangga yang menguntungkan tersebut.
  5. Menggunakan tanaman penutup tanah secara rutin untuk menyediakan beberapa manfaat seperti habitat bagi serangga yang menguntungkan , menambahkan N dan bahan organik ke tanah , mengurangi erosi dan meningkatkan infiltrasi air hujan ke dalam tanah , mempertahankan ketersediaan hara dalam tanah.  Hal ini dimungkinkan untuk memasok semua kebutuhan nitrogen tanaman dengan menanam tanaman legume penutup tanah .
  6. Menggunakan sistem rotasi yang kompleks , melibatkan jenis-jenis tanaman yang berbeda dan  jika mungkin , termasuk jenis-jenis rumput permanen tanpa olah-tanah selama beberapa tahun .

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  8. Mengurangi pengolahan-tanah merupakan bagian penting dari pendekatan ekologi untuk pertanian . Pengolahan tanah mengubur residu biomasa, meninggalkan permukaan tanah terbuka dan lebih rentan terhadap efek erosif air hujan , dan pada saat yang sama memecah agregat-agregat tanah , sehingga dapat mengganggu infiltrasi , penyimpanan dan drainase air hujan. ( Penggunaan praktek yang mengurangi erosi sangat penting untuk mempertahankan produktivitas tanah ) .

 

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PB PERTANIAN BERLANJUT MAMPU MENGATASI DAMPAK PERUBAHAN IKLIM

December 4th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS   MAMPU MENGATASI DAMPAK PERUBAHAN IKLIM

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Model-MODEL pertanian yang tidak ramah lingkungan yang terjadi saat ini adalah salah satu sumber terbesar emisi gas rumah kaca secara global.

Pertanian ekologis menjadi strategi mitigasi dan strategi adaptasi perubahan iklim:

  1. Praktek pertanian ekologis yang efisien mampu mengurangi penggunaan pupuk sintetis dan mempromosikan tanah subur dan kaya karbon , mengurangi hingga 70 persen emisi karbon oleh pertanian secara global.
  2. Kunci pertanian ekologis untuk mitigasi perubahan iklim adalah membangun, tanah kaya karbon yang sehat. Hal ini akan menjadi penangkap karbon yang utama dan pada saat yang sama akan menjadi dasar untuk pertanian sehat non-kimia, dengan keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi.
  3. Pengurangan emisi yang signifikan dapat dicapai dengan menghilangkan pupuk sintetis yang berlebihan, yang merupakan kemenangan tiga-ganda:  petani menghemat uang dengan jumlah pupuk yang dibutuhkan tanaman, emisi berkurang secara signifikan, dan kontaminasi nitrat di perairan danau, sungai, lautan dan air tanah juga berkurang.  Penanaman kacang-kacangan dan / atau aplikasi kompos, pupuk kandang atau pupuk hijau, siklus hara secara alamiah dan fiksasi nitrogen dapat menyuburkan tanah tanpa pupuk sintetis, dan pada saat yang sama menghemat biaya input buatan dan tanah menjadi lebih sehat, kaya bahan organik, lebih mampu menahan air dan lebih tahan terhadap gaya-gaya erosi.
  4. Mengurangi konsumsi daging di negara-negara maju akan memberikan kontribusi untuk menurunkan emisi gas rumah kaca dari peternakan.

 

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PB PERTANIAN BERLANJUT – SANGAT MENGUNTUNGKAN SECARA EKONOMI

December 4th, 2013 No comments


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PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS -  SANGAT MENGUNTUNGKAN SECARA EKONOMI

 

Pertanian ekologis (PE) dengan PRAKTEK-praktek budidaya tanaman yang berdasarkan pada keanekaragaman hayati dan tanpa menggunakan pupuk buatan atau pestisida sintetis, dapat menghasilkan lebih banyak makanan per hektar lahan dibandingkan dnegan sistem pertanian konvensional. PE ini mampu meningkatkan hasil tanaman, terutama di negara-negara berkembang .  Sebuah meta – analisis menunjukkan bahwa secara global , pertanian ekologis ternyata mampu menghasilkan rata-rata 30 persen lebih banyak bahan pangan per hektar lahan dibandingkan pertanian konvensional , dan di negara berkembang pertanian organik dapat menghasilkan sekitar 80 persen lebih banyak bahan pangan per hektar lahan ( Badgley et al., 2007 ) .

Pertanian ekologis menjadi solusi yang sanghat menjanjikan , realistis dan ekonomis dibandingkan dengan model-model pertanian yang tidak ramah lingkungan . Dalam penelitian yang dilakukanj oleh PBB , analisis mendalam dari 15 contoh pertanian organik di Afrika telah menunjukkan peningkatan produktivitas per hektar lahan untuk tanaman pangan , pendapatan petani meningkat , manfaat lingkungan , kelembagaan masyarakat diperkuat dan modal manusia ditingkatkan . Pertanian organik dapat meningkatkan produktivitas pertanian dan dapat meningkatkan pendapatan petani dengan biaya yang murah , tersedia secara lokal dengan teknologi tepat-guna , tanpa menyebabkan kerusakan lingkungan .

Pertanian ekologis adalah sistem pertanian yang menguntungkan secara ekonomis. Di seluruh Eropa , misalnya , analisis wilayah yang luas menunjukkan bahwa keuntungan pertanian organik adalah sebanding dengan pertanian konvensional . Di kebun apel di bagian barat AS , jika dibandingkan dengan pertanian konvensional dan terpadu , pertanian organik menghasilkan buah apel yang lebih manis dan mengandung lebih sedikit tart , profitabilitasnya lebih tinggi dan efisiensi energinya lebih besar .
Dalam studi selama satu dekade , para ilmuwan telah menunjukkan bahwa pertanian dengan keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi dan tanpa pestisida atau pupuk kimia sintetis ternyata lebih menguntungkan daripada pertanian monokultur dan bahan kimia sintetis.

Program Manajemen pertanian Non – Pestisida di Andhra Pradesh ( India ) telah berhasil menunjukkan lebih rendahnya biaya budidaya tanaman dan meningkatkan pendapatan bersih petani . Biaya budidaya menurun secara signifikan , dengan menghemat aplikasi pestisida kimia tanpa menurunkan hasil tanaman.

Pertanian ekologis merupakan penghematan bersih yang signifikan bagi petani dan masyarakat luas. Misalnya di Inggris , jika sistem pertanian secara keseluruhan bergeser ke pertanian organik , penghematan biaya lingkungan dapat mencapai sekitar 1 miliar £ per tahun ( 1,5 miliar US $ ) (Pretty et al . , 2005).

Praktek pertanian ekologis secara ideal cocok untuk petani miskin dan petani kecil , karena mereka memerlukan input komersial yang minimal atau tidak ada input eksternal , menggunakan secara lokal dan alami bahan yang tersedia untuk menghasilkan produk berkualitas tinggi , dan mendorong pendekatan sistemik sistem pertanian yang lebih beragam dan lebih tahan terhadap stres lingkungan.

Penilaian Pertanian oleh PBB (International Assessment of Agriculture Science and Technology for Development ) tentang keamanan pangan : ” kebijakan yang mempromosikan pertanian berkelanjutan ( ……….. ) merangsang inovasi teknologi yang lebih baik , seperti pendekatan agroekologi dan pertanian organik untuk mengurangi kemiskinan dan meningkatkan ketahanan pangan ” ( IAASTD , 2009).

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Badgley, C., Moghtader, J., Quintero, E., Zakem, E., Chappell, M. J., Avilés-Vázquez, K., Samulon, A. and Perfecto, I. 2007. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22: 86-108.

IAASTD 2009. International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for
Development. Island Press. www.agassessment.org.

Pretty, J. N., Ball, A. S., Lang, T. and Morison, J. I. L. 2005. Farm costs and food miles: An assessment of the full cost of the UK weekly food basket. Food Policy 30: 1-19.

www.greenpeace.org/…/agriculture/…/Defining-Ecological-Farming-200…

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MKT KESUBURAN TANAH PADA PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS

December 4th, 2013 No comments

KESUBURAN TANAH  PADA  PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS

 

PENANAMAN LEGUME dan / atau aplikasi kompos ke tanah, kotoran hewan , pupuk hijau,  merupakan cara-cara cerdas untuk meningkatkan kandungan bahan organik tanah danmemperbaiki  kesuburan tanah . Siklus hara secara alamiah dan fiksasi nitrogen dapat memperbaiki kesuburan tanah tanpa pupuk sintetis , dan pada saat yang sama mengurangi beban biaya petani untuk membeli input buatan, dan menyehatkan tanah , kaya bahan organik , lebih mampu menahan air dan lebih tahan terhadap gaya-gaya erosi .

Penggunaan pupuk organik , umumnya murah dan tersedia secara lokal , membuat pertanian ekologis lebih aman dan tidak rentan terhadap aksesibilitas input eksternal dan fluktuasi harga-harganya . Penyimpanan karbon dalam tanah-tanah pertanian juga dapat secara signifikan berkontribusi terhadap mitigasi perubahan iklim .
Pertanian ekologis mampu menggunakan input-input dengan cara sebaik-baiknya, yang bertujuan untuk membangun kesuburan tanah alami dan meningkatkan efisiensi . Pupuk organik , dan biopestisida , dapat digunakan secara berlebihan , pertanian ekologi bertujuan untuk efisiensi penggunaan setiap jenis input.

  1.  Suatu meta – analisis terbaru dari 77 studi yang dipublikasikan menunjukkan bahwa jenis kacang-kacangan pemfiksasi nitrogen dapat digunakan sebagai pupuk hijau untuk menyediakan cukup nitrogen biologis menggantikan seluruh jumlah pupuk nitrogen sintetis , tanpa kerugian produksi pangan .
  2. Dalam sebuah studi selama 21  tahun pada sistem  pertanian di Eropa , tanah yang dipupuk organik menunjukkan stabilitas tanah yang lebih baik , kesuburan tanah meningkat dan keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi , termasuk aktivitas mikroba dan cacing tanah , dibandingkan dnegan tanah yang dipupuk dengan pupuk sintetis
  3. Di kebun apel , aplikasi pupuk kandang ( dibandingkan dengan aplikasi pupuk kimia sintetis) dapat lebih meningkatkan jumlah karbon yang tersimpan dalam tanah , meningkatkan keragaman dan aktivitas mikroba tanah , dan mengurangi pencucian nitrat ke badan air, sekaligus mengurangi emisi nitrous oksida .
  4. Metode pertanian organik dapat membantu mengembalikan kecenderungan menurunnya kesuburan tanah yang banyak terjadi di negara-negara berkembang . Masalah-maslaah erosi tanah , pengasaman tanah dan deplesi bahan organik tanah dapat diminimumkan dengan menerapkan praktik agroekologi yang mampu memelihara kesuburan tanah dan keanekaragaman hayati .

 

SELENGKAPNYA LIHAT:

www.greenpeace.org/…/agriculture/…/Defining-Ecological-Farming

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PB PERTANIAN BERLANJUT EKOLOGIS – BEBERAPA KEUNGGULANNYA

December 4th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS  – BEBERAPA KEUNGGULANNYA

 

Pertanian ekologis menjamin pertanian yang sehat dan makanan SEHAT untuk hari ini dan besok, dengan melindungi sumberdaya tanah, air dan iklim, mempromosikan keanekaragaman hayati, dan tidak mencemari lingkungan dengan input kimia atau rekayasa genetik.
Beberapa manfaat pertanian ekologis

  1.  Pertanian ekologis mempromosikan kemampuan masyarakat untuk memberi makan diri mereka sendiri dan menjamin masa depan pertanian yang sehat dan makanan sehat bagi semua orang .
  2. Pertanian ekologis melindungi tanah dari erosi dan degradasi , peningkatan kesuburan tanah , menghemat air dan habitat alami, dan mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca .
  3. Pertanian ekologis merupakan strategi yang bagus untuk mitigasi dan adaptasi perubahan iklim . Pertanian ekologi dapat menyerap karbon skala besar dan menawarkan banyak pilihan lain untuk mitigasi perubahan iklim . Selain itu, pertanian dengan keanekaragaman hayatinya merupakan strategi yang paling efektif untuk adaptasi pertanian terhadap masa depan kondisi iklim . Campuran tanaman yang berbeda dalam satu bidang lahan menjadi metode pertanian yang telah terbukti sangat bagus dan dapat diandalkan untuk meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap perubahan cuaca .
  4. Pertanian ekologis bergantung pada alam dan melindungi alam dengan mengambil keuntungan dari barang dan jasa-jasa alam , seperti keanekaragaman hayati , siklus hara , regenerasi tanah dan musuh alami hama , dan mengintegrasikan barang dan jasa alam ini ke dalam sistem agroekologi yang memastikan ketersediaan dan kecukupan pangan untuk semua orang pada saat sekarang dan hari esok .


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Model-model  pertanian ekologis didukung oleh bukti-bukti saintifik berikut:

Biodiversitas

Biodiversitas Pertanian merupakan teknologi modern yang sangat penting untuk mencapai ketahanan pangan dalam konteks perubahan iklim . Para ilmuwan telah menunjukkan bahwa keanekaragaman hayati mampu menyediakan polis asuransi alami terhadap perubahan ekosistem , baik dalam hal habitat liar atau di bidang pertanian . Campuran tanaman yang berbeda dan varietas yang beragam dalam satu bidang lahan telah terbukti dan sangat bagus dan dapat diandalkan untuk meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap perubahan cuaca yang tak menentu .
Cara terbaik untuk meningkatkan toleransi stres dalam teknologi varietas tunggal modern peternakan tidak memerlukan rekayasa genetika , seperti Marker Assisted Selection ( MAS ) . Sebaliknya , belum banyak bukti bahwa rekayasa genetika ( GE ) tanaman yang dapat memainkan peran apapun untuk meningkatkan ketahanan pangan dalam monteks perubahan iklim.
Strategi diversifikasi ini didukung oleh kekayaan ilmiah modern, misalnya :

  1.  Di Amerika Serikat , para ahli agronomi membandingkan hasil panen jagung selama tiga tahun, antara tanaman monokultur dan tanaman dengan berbagai tingkat keanekaragaman ( tiga tanaman , ditambah tiga tanaman penutup ) , hasilnya ternyata lebih tinggi pada tanaman yang beragam daripada tanaman monokultur terus menerus . Keanekaragaman tanaman dapat memperbaiki kesuburan tanah, mengurangi kebutuhan input kimia,  mampu menjaga hasil tanaman yang tinggi  .
  2. Di ladang gandum tadah hujan di Italia , keragaman genetik yang tinggi di lahan dapat  mengurangi risiko kegagalan panen selama kondisi kering . Dalam skenario penurunana curah hujan 20 persen , hasil gandum akan menurun tajam . Tetapi ketika keragaman meningkat , penurunan hasil ini dibalik dan ternyata hasilnya  lebih besar daripada rata-rata .
SELENGKAPNYA LIHAT: …
www.greenpeace.org/…/agriculture/…/Defining-Ecological-Farming-200…

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PB ECOFARMING – PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS

December 4th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

ECOFARMING  – PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS

Pertanian ekologis merupakan salah satu pendukung pertanian berkelanjutan.   Tujuan dari pertanian ekologis tidak hanya produksi pangan yang berkelanjutan, tetapi juga untuk mengoptimalkan penyediaan jasa-jasa ekosistem,  baik dalam desain pertaniannya maupun derivatifnya , yang meminimumkan kerusakan ekologi yang diakibatkan oleh aktivitas konsumen hasil pertanian dan pasca panen produk pertanian.

Prinsip-prinsip yang unik DALAM pertanian ekologis :

1. Produksi pangan harus ekologi , baik asal-usulnya (produsen) maupun tujuannya (konsumen)

2. Integrasi spesies yang mampu mempertahankan jasa-jasa ekosistem sambil menyediakan produk-produk alternatif
3. Meminimalkan “perlakuan” bahan makanan kilometer, kemasan, konsumsi energi , dan limbah yang dihasilkannya.
4. Menemukan ekosistem baru untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia dengan memanfaatkan pengalaman dan pelajaran dari ekosistem yang ada di seluruh dunia
5. Penerapan IPTEK tentang mikroorganisme tanah sehingga manfaat ekologi dari berbagai mikroorganisme dalam sistem produktif seperti Forest Gardens dapat dioptimalkan, misalnya mikroorganisme yang disebut denitrifiers.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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