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PB TANAH LESTARI — OLAH TANAH

December 23rd, 2013 No comments

TANAH LESTARI  — OLAH TANAH

 

Tanpa Olah Tanah (TOT) menyimpan karbon tanah lebih banyak,  membantu mengikat atau perekat partikel tanah bersama-sama, membuat lapisan permutaan lebih tahan terhadap daya rusak air hujan daripada  tanah yang dibajak.

Struktur agregat tanah lapisan atas (topsoil) ini merupakan pertahanan pertama terhadap erosi tanah oleh air hujan atau angin.  Memahami ketahanan agregat tanah ini terhadap kekuatan erosif dari angin dan air hujan sangat penting untuk mengevaluasi erodibilitas tanah.

Hal ini terutama penting di daerah-daerah semi kering, di mana curah hujan yang rendah, penguapan tinggi, dan variabilitas hasil, dapat berinteraksi dengan pengolahan tanah yang intensif untuk mengubah sifat agregat tanah dan kandungan bahan organik tanah.

Pengolahan tanah membuat tanah kurang tahan terhadap penghancuran oleh tetesan air hujan karena agregasi tanah terganggu dan bahan organik tanah hilang melalui oksidasi , ketika agregat tanah bersinggungan langsung udara.

 


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Selengkapnya lihat:

http://www.agriculture.com/crops/tillage/no-till/notill-improves-soil-stability-in-great_188-ar13846

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – OLAH TANAH DAN MULSA PERMUKAAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN  – MULSA PERMUKAAN

 

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan pertanian dapat menyebabkan pemadatan tahnah dan degradasi sifat fisik tanah . Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menilai dampak pemadatan tanah akibat  lalu lintas kendaraan di atas tanah selama 5 tahun .

Sebuah traktor dengan ukuran poros berat 40 kN digunakan untuk menerapkan lalu lintas di berbagai wheelslip pada tanah liat dengan berbagai kondisi residu penutup permukaan untuk mensimulasikan efek lalu lintas operasi kendaraan dalam sistem produksi gandum di Australia bagian utara.  Sebuah simulator curah hujan digunakan untuk mempelajari karakteristik infiltrasi air hujan.

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan secara signifikan mengurangi waktu untuk mencapai penggenangan , laju infiltrasi konstan, dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tanah tanpa lalu-lintas  roda kendaraan, dengan atau tanpa adanya residu penutup permukaan.

Tanah “non-roda kendaraan” memiliki 4-5 kali lebih besar laju infiltrasi konstan dibandingkan dengan tanah dengan “roda kendaraan” , tidak tergantung pada kondisi residu penutup tanah. Perlakuan Wheelslip menurunkan lebih dari 10% laju infiltrasi konstan dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan  3 % wheelslip,  pada kondisi ada residu penutup tanah.

Dalam kondisi tidak ada pemadatan akibat roda kendaraan , residu penutup tanah memiliki efek lebih besar terhadap kapasitas infiltrasi , dengan laju infiltrasi konstan meningkat secara proporsional dengan residu penutup tanah ( R2 = 0,98 ) . Residu penutup tanah, mempunyai lebih sedikit efek terhadap infiltrasi air hujan kalau ada efek roda kendaraan.

Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa laju infiltrasi air hujan untuk tanah “non-roda” pada kondisi tanpa-olah tanah ternyata mirip dengan kondisi tanah perawan .

Namun demikian, ketika tanah diolah dnegan roda-traktor kelas menengah , laju infiltrasi air  hujan menurun.  Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa lalu lintas roda-kendaraan , mungkin menjadi faktor utama yang mengendalikan infiltrasi air hujan.

Sistem pertanian dengan lalu lintas roda-kendaraan yang terbatas, dikombinasikan dengan konservasi tanah , merupakan cara untuk keberlanjutan pertanaman pada  tanah ini, meningkatkan infiltrasi , peningkatan air tersedia , dan mengurnagi erosi tanah dan limpasan permukaan.

 

SUMBER:

Yuxia Li, J. N. Tullberg and D. M. Freebairn. 2001. Traffic and residue cover effects on infiltration.  

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Australian Journal of Soil Research 39(2) 239 – 247.

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EFEK Olah TANAH TERHADAP KELESTARIAN BOT

November 24th, 2013 No comments

EFEK Olah TANAH TERHADAP KELESTARIAN BOT

Teknologi Tanpa olah tanah (TOT) telah dipromosikan sebagai alternatif untuk menggantikan pengolahan tanah secara KONVENSIONAL (OTK) guna meningkatkan keberlanjutan pertanian.

Sistem OTK dapat lebih diuntungkan dengan menggunakan tanaman penutup tanah. Dengan demikian, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi TOT dan efek tanaman penutup tanah terhadap Bobot iisi Tanah, karbon organik tanah (BOT) dan nitrogen (N) dibandingkan dengan sistem Olah tanah konvensional (OTK) untuk beberapa tanah di wilayah Midwestern Amerika Serikat.

Sebanyak 15 lokasi pertanian dipilih berdasarkan jenis tanah dan lahan di seluruh lokasi dari Ohio dan Michigan. Sampel tanah terganggu dan tidak terganggu dikumpulkan dari petak-petak TOT dan OTK dengan kedalaman  0-10, 10-20, 20-40, dan 40-60 cm dan tiga ulangan.

Penelitian ini menguji hipotesis bahwa akumulasi C dan N dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan lahan dan sistem pengelolaannya ,  dan fraksi ukuran agregat tanah.

Hasil dari penelitian ini mendukung kesimpulan bahwa praktik TOT jangka panjang bila digunakan dengan tanaman penutup tanah dapat meningkatkan agregasi tanah dibandingkan dengan OTK, dan menyimpan BOT dan N-tanah yang lebih banyak. Tanaman penutup tanah dalam praktek TOT meningkatkan BOT dibandingkan dengan yang tanpa tanaman penutup tanah.

Secara rata-rata, Bobot Isi tanah pada perlakuan TOT dengan tanaman penutup tanah adalah 10-15% lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan pada perlakuan OTK. Untuk kedalaman 0-60 cm, kandungan BOT pada perlakuan TOT dengan tanaman penutup adalah 20-30% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pelakuan OTK.

Data menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan tanaman penutup tanah dengan TOT dapat meningkatkan kandungan saham BOT dan memperbaiki ‘pembentukan agregat dan stabilisasinya.

Penggunaan tanaman penutup tanah jangka panjang tidak hanya meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman, tetapi juga bermanfaat bagi lingkungan.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:  https://scisoc.confex.com/crops/2012am/webprogram/Paper72494.html

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