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PB-Manfaat Lingkungan Pertanian Kota.

Manfaat Lingkungan Pertanian Kota.

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Pertanian Kota (PK) dapat berkontribusi untuk pengelolaan lingkungan dan penggunaan kembali tanah yang terkontaminasi , termasuk “brownfields”. Sebagai akibat dari peningkatan dedaunan tanaman , pertanian perkotaan dapat mengurangi limpasan stormwater dan polusi udara , dan dapat meningkatkan keanekaragaman hayati perkotaan dan pelestarian spesies .

Sektor pertanian kota akan terus berkembang , pemerintah daerah dapat memainkan peran penting dalam mendokumentasikan manfaat PK dan bermitra dengan perguruan tinggi lokal untuk penelitian lebih lanjut dampak PK terhadap masyarakat .

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Manfaat lingkungan dari pohon perkotaan

November 24th, 2013 No comments


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Manfaat lingkungan dari  pohon perkotaan

1. Pohon membantu meningkatkan kualitas udara dengan mengurangi polusi udara & gas rumah kaca.  Sebagian besar pohon menggunakan fotosintesis untuk mengubah karbon dioksida (CO2) menjadi bahan organik .  Proses fotosintesis ini membantu mengurangi jumlah CO2 yang merupakan gas rumah kaca dan berkontribusi terhadap kabut asap dan kondisi tidak sehat. Namun demikian, kemampuan pohon untuk meningkatkan kualitas udara secara signifikan tergantung pada banyak faktor, seperti spesies pohon, lokasi dan tata letak pohon, dan jumlah pohon yang ditanam. Meskipun sulit untuk mengukur secara akurat efek perbaikan kualitas udara oleh pohon ,  Departemen Pertanian Amerika Serikat telah menemukan bahwa satu hektar hutan menyerap enam ton karbon dioksida dan melepaskan empat ton oksigen. Nilai-nilai ini cukup untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tahunan 18 orang.

2. Pohon membantu mengurangi limpasan air hujan dan meningkatkan kualitas air.  Limpasan air hujan dapat menjadi masalah besar di lingkungan perkotaan. Sejumlah besar permukaan tahan dibeton dan pengerasan lainnya, sehingga dapat memaksa kelebihan air hujan mengalir di permukaan tanah , dan memasuki sistem saluran pembuangan air.  Hasilnya dapat berupa banjir bandang dan kerusakan properti. Pohon dapat menangkap sejumlah besar air hujan melalui sistem akar dan kanopinya, yang juga membantu untuk menyaring beberapa polutan. Hasil akhirnya adalah memasukkan air hujan ke dalam groundwater dan peningkatan kualitas air.

3. Pohon membantu untuk mengurangi efek pulau panas perkotaan.  Jika Anda pernah berjalan melintasi lapangan parkir terbuka selama musim panas, maka akan mengalami efek pulau panas perkotaan. Daerah luas beraspal dan beton menangkap panas matahari dan merefleksikan kembali ke lingkungan, sehingga meningkatkan suhu udara di daerah sekitarnya. Proses ini memberikan kontribusi untuk asap, pemanasan global dan biaya energi yang lebih tinggi untuk penyejuk udara di gedung-gedung. Penempatan strategis pohon di dalam dan sekitar tempat parkir dapat memberikan efek-shading yang diperlukan untuk membatasi efek pulau panas.

4. Pohon perkotaan dan hutan membantu mengurangi, bahkan menghilangkan, erosi.  Lahan garapan dapat terkikis oleh angin kencang dan limpasan air hujan.  Akar pohon dapat mengikat material tanah dan dengan demikian mencegah hilangnya material tanah.

5. Pohon menyediakan habitat satwa liar dan mempromosikan keanekaragaman hayati. Sistem lingkungan yang kompleks memerlukan kehadiran beragam kehidupan dari makhluk hidup. Pohon menyediakan habitat yang diperlukan untuk berbagai satwa liar untuk hidup di lingkungan kota-kota. Sebuah pohon oak yang besar ,  spesies yang umum ditemukan di banyak kota-kota Amerika, dapat mendukung kehidupan 500 spesies serangga dan invertebrata.

6. Hutan kota yang sehat berkontribusi terhadap stabilisasi DAS.   Pohon menyerap sejumlah besar air melalui sistem akarnya , sehingga dapat membantu mengurangi banjir. Tanah hutan menyerap dan menyimpan air hujan, yang dilepaskan perlahan-lahan dari waktu ke waktu. Efek ini juga terjadi selama musim kering.  Selanjutnya, akar-akar pohon menciptakan kantong-kantong udara di dalam tanah yang berfungsi untuk menyaring kontaminan , sehingga polutan tidak memasuki sumber air tanah (akuifer, sungai, danau, dll).

 

Selengkapnya lihat:  http://www.sustainablecitiesinstitute.org/view/page.basic/class/feature.class/Lesson_Benefits_Urb_Forest_Trees

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