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PB Cara Mengurangi LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

Cara Mengurangi LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

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Parit berkerikil untuk jalannya runoff air hujan.
Gambarlah jalan yang ditempuh oleh air limpasan, kemudian digali parit dan diisi kerikil, sehingga aliran runorr  lebih lambat dan memungkinkan air meresap ke dalam tanah.

Gunakan air hujan yang mengalir dari cucuran atap.

A 1000 atap kaki persegi dapat menghasilkan lebih dari 600 galon air limpasan untuk setiap  satu inchi  hujan yang jatuh di atasnya.  Air dari cucuran atap ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk  lahan yang bervegetasi, seperti taman atau lahan rumput.  Gunakan ekstensi untuk memastikan air jatuh minimal 5 meter dari fondasi bangunan, menginstal penampung air hujan atau kolam untuk mengumpulkan air hujan.

Ganti rumput dengan tanaman asli.
Rumput tidak terlalu efektif dalam menyerap dan menahan air hujan, terutama pada saat hujan deras. Tanaman asli, seperti semak dan bunga-bunga liar, cenderung untuk mengembangkan sistem akar yang lebih luas dan menahan air jauh lebih banyak daripada rumput.  Vegetasi asli ini membutuhkan perawatan yang lebih mudah.

APLIKASI bahan organik ke tanah

Menambahkan bahan organik, kompos atau mulsa ke tanah dapat membuat tanaman lebih bahagia, tetapi juga dapat mengurangi air limpasan. Sebarkan 2-4 inchi lapisan bahan organik setahun sekali di permukaan tanah.

Jangan membiarkan tanah terbuka

Tergantung pada lereng dan jenis tanahnya, lahan gundul dapat berperilaku hampir sama seperti beton. Jika tidak dapat atau tidak ingin menanam vegetasi pada lahan yang terbuka, tutupi muka tanah dengan mulsa, serpihan kayu, atau kerikil. Hal ini terutama penting bagi taman-taman baru yang belum mempunyai vegetasi.

Menanam pohon dan melestarikan pohon yang sudah ada.
Sistem akar pohon besar  ‘secara efektif’  menyerap air hujan di wilayah yang luas. Selain itu, kanopi pohon memperlambat jatuhnya air hujan sehingga tanah mampu menyerap jumlah air hujan yang lebih banyak . Tanaman pohon asli atau pohon yang dapat meresapkan banyak air dan disesuaikan dengan lingkungan sekitar dan merawat pohon yang ada. Untuk konstruksi rumah baru, jangan menebang pohon-pohon yang sudah ada.

Jangan menimbulkan air limpasan ketika mencuci mobil

Bawa mobil ke tempat cuci mobil (sebaiknya tempat cucian yang mendaur ulang airnya), atau mencuci mobil di halaman rumah; juga dapat mencuci mobil tanpa air.

Membuat taman hujan (rain garden).
Sebuah taman hujan adalah taman yang dibuat pada depresi (cekungan) lahan, yang dapat mengumpulkan air hujan dan memungkinkan air tersebut secara bertahap meresap ke dalam tanah. Taman hujan dapat diguat dengan berbagai ukuran dan biasanya ditempatkan di lokasi yang paling rendah dari bentang lahan atau bahkan di lokasi outlet dimana air mengalir secara alami atau air dapat diarahkan kepadanya. Tanaman air dan dasar tanah yang permeabel memungkinkan taman hujan dengan cepat menyerap air hujan dalam jumlah besar, biasanya hanya dalam beberapa jam.

Mengurangi kemiringan halaman .
Jika halaman memiliki kemiringan yang cukup curam , tanah akan mengalami kesulitan menyerap air hujan. Pertimbangkan menggali untuk membuat terras, sehingga lereng curam menjadi lebih landai.  Untuk mencegah penggenangan banjir dan kerusakan pondasi, pastikan bahwa lahan miring cukup jauh dari rumah, setidaknya 10-15 kaki.

 

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PB Bgaimana Cara Mengurangi limpasan air hujan

November 30th, 2013 No comments

Cara Mengurangi limpasan air hujan

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Limpasan air hujan adalah curah hujan yang tidak meresap ke tanah di mana ia jatuh.  Limpasan air hujan ini adalah salah satu ancaman terbesar bagi kualitas air di sebagian besar dunia .  Ketika air mengalir dari jalan-jalan, dan tempat parkir ke selokan drainage atau langsung ke saluran air, ia membawa sedimen yang dapat menyumbat sungai dan mengurangi oksigen dalam air sungai, serta bahan kimia toksik bagi ekosistem perairan dan dapat menurunkan kualitas air .  Limpasan air hujan juga dapat berkontribusi terhadap kejadian banjir, dan karena tidak mengisi ulang persediaan groundwater , dapat memperburuk fenomena kekurangan atau kelangkaan air.

Meminimalkan luas permukaan yang kedap air di lahan pekarangan rumah tinggal. Di alam , sebagian besar curah hujan membasahi tanah tempat jatuhnya. Tanaman menyerap air tanah ini melalui akarnya, dan sebagian air tanah ini memasuki groundwater , air tanah ini selama pergerakannya ke bawah mengalami pembersihan oleh matriks tanah.   ” Lingkungan binaan” biasanya  ditandai oleh permukaan yang kedap air,  sehingga sebagian besar air hujan akan melimpas di permukaan.   Untuk mengurangi luas permukaan yang kedap air dapat dilakukan:

1 . Mengganti beton atau aspal dengan paving yang berlubang-lubang.  Batu paving atau batu bata dapat digunakan untuk mengerasan teras , trotoar , dan jalan masuk perumahan. Air dapat meresap ke dalam ruang di antara batu paving, sehingga mengurangi jumlah air limpasan .

2 . Jalan untuk Ban mobil. Hanya ban mobil saja yang jalannya diperkeras, jadi ada dua strip perkerasan pada jalan masuknya mobil . Sehingga di bagian tengah dari jalan mobil itu dapat ditanami rumput atau mulsa , mengurangi luas permukaan yang diperkeras.

3 . Ganti semua atau sebagian dari paving halaman dengan jenis paving yang berlubang. Tanaman dapat tumbuh pada lubang-lubang tersebut.

4 . Mengganti paving di sudut halaman yang laing rendah dengan paving yang berlubang-lubang . Hal ini akan memungkinkan air yang terkumpul di halaman untuk meresap ke dalam tanah , bukannya mengalir ke luar halaman , akhirnya memasuki ke saluran air drainage.

5 . Jika suatu daerah harus diaspal , gunakan aspal atau beton berpori yang permeable , yang akan memungkinkan setidaknya sebagian air hujan meresap ke dalam tanah . Perlu diingat bahwa efektivitas bahan-bahan tersebut terbatas karena air cenderung untuk mengalir-pergi sebelum dapat meresap ke dalam tanah , terutama jika kemiringan lahan cukup miring.  Selain itu juga harus dipastikan bahwa tanah di bawah paving cukup permeable untuk meresapkan air hujan.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

http://www.wikihow.com/Reduce-Stormwater-Runoff-at-Your-Home

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DIT TEKSTUR TANAH MEMPENGARUHI LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

November 29th, 2013 No comments

TEKSTUR TANAH MEMPENGARUHI LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

 

Terlepas dari karakteristik curah hujan, seperti intensitas , durasi dan distribusi HUJAN; , ada sejumlah faktor lokasi ( atau DAS ) tertentu yang memiliki hubungan langsung dengan terjadinya runoff dan volume limpasan permukaan.

Kapasitas infiltrasi antara lain tergantung pada porositas tanah yang menentukan kapasitas penyimpanan air dan mempengaruhi aliran dan pergerakan air ke lapisan anah yang lebih dalam .

Porositas berbeda-beda  di antara jenis-jenis tanah . Kapasitas infiltrasi tertinggi biasanya terjadi pada atanah-tanah yang longgar -gembur, tanah berpasir ; sedangkan tanah-tanah berliat atau liat-berat memiliki kapasitas infiltrasi yang cukup rendah (kecil).

Kapasitas infiltrasi juga tergantung pada kadar air tanah pada saat awal terjadinya hujan .

Kapasitas awal yang tinggi akan berkurang dengan waktu (asalkan hujan tidak berhenti ) sehingga mencapai nilai konstan pada saat profil tanah telah menjadi jenuh air.

Namun hal seperti ini, hanya berlaku kalau kondisi permukaan tanah tetap utuh, tidak terganggu .

Ukuran rata-rata hujan meningkat dengan intensitas hujan .  Dalam hujan lebat dengan intensitas yang tinggi, energi kinetik hujan cukup besar ketika tetesan air hujan memukul permukaan tanah . Hal ini menyebabkan kerusakan pada agregat tanah dan dispersi partikel tanah , dengan konsekuensi mengangkut partikel tanah halus ke dalam pori-pori tanah lapisan bagian atas . Hal ini menyebabkan penyumbatan pori-pori tanah, pembentukan lapisan tipis Kerak tanah yang padat pada permukaan tanah, dan hal ini sangat mengurangi kapasitas infiltrasi .

Efek pembentukan kerak ini , sering disebut sebagai “capping” , pengerasan kulit atau penyegelan , menjelaskan mengapa di daerah kering dan semi – kering dengan hujan yang beragam intensitasnya,  terjadi limpasan permukaan yang cukup banyak meskipun hujan hanya berlangsung singkat dan curah hujan relatif kecil .

Tanah-tanah yang kaya liat ( misalnya tanah abu vulkan dengan 20 % liat ), paling sensitif untuk membentuk “kerak-permukaan”  dengan kapasitas infiltrasi selanjutnya lebih rendah . Pada tanah- tanah berpasir efek “capping” ini  relatif kecil .

Kurva kapasitas infiltrasi untuk jenis tanah yang berbeda .


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TAMAN HUJAN UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

November 27th, 2013 No comments

TAMAN HUJAN  UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

 

Taman hujan menjadi fitur yang semakin populer DALAM Pembangunan ramah lingkungan .

Taman-hujan ini mempromosikan manajemen desentralisasi limpasan air hujan dengan memperlakukan air limpasan di tempatnya .

Taman hujan efektif karena mereka menampung, menyimpan dan meresapkan air hujan ke tanah, sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses biogeokimia , sehingga menghilangkan polutan dari air limpasan .

Penelitian ini memfokuskan pada hasil dari studi pemantauan kualitas air dan suplemen hasil dengan inspeksi visual dari setiap situs taman-hujan.

Manfaat taman-hujan dalam memperbaiki kualitas air tergantung pada berbagai faktor termasuk ukuran taman hujan , spesifikasi desain , lokasi , vegetasi , dan daerah alirannya.

The US Geological Survey memantau kualitas air di tiga taman hujan yang terletak di Twin Cities Metropolitan Area , Minnesota .

Tujuannya adalah untuk membandingkan karakteristik kualitas air dari taman hujan dengan desain yang berbeda dan menganalisis kontribusi luas penggunaan lahan . Sampel air inflow , overflow, zona Vadose , dan air tanah dianalisis kandungan haranya yang biasanya ditemukan di limpasan air hujan kawasan perkotaan .

Umumnya , konsentrasi yang lebih rendah dari nitrogen , fosfor , dan total padatan tersuspensi , ditemukan di zona Vadose dan air tanah, dibandingkan dengan konsentrasinya dalam inflow ; hal ini menunjukkan kinerja yang baik dalam hal memperbaiki kualitas air . Satu situs tidak menunjukkan perbedaan konsentrasi fosfor terlarut , diyakini hal ini karena rendahnya konsentrasi P dalam air limpasan yang memasuki taman-hujan . Konsentrasi klorida yang lebih tinggi ditemukan di tanah dan air tanah dibandingkan dengan konsnetrasinya dalam inflow di dua lokasi .

Bukti yang baik dari penghapusan hara di taman-hujan sehingga menghasilkan air yang relatif bersih untuk mengisi pasokan air-tanah (groundwater) setempat .

Inspeksi visual dari tiga taman hujan memberikan bukti tambahan bahwa tiga situs tersebut berfungsi dengan baik . Tampaknya tidak ada kegagalan struktural yang serius. Vegetasi di setiap lokasi juga tampak sehat , namun  kehadiran spesies vegetasi lahan basah dan rumput beracun perlu mendapatkan perhatian serius dalam pemeliharaannya .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Water quality characteristics of three rain gardens located within the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN.  Elliott, Sarah Marie. May 2010

http://conservancy.umn.edu/handle/93088

 

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