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PROPOSAL MULTI CRITERIA LANDUSE PLANNING

  MULTI CRITERIA LANDUSE PLANNING

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PRBL LANDUSE PLANNING – TUJUANNYA

December 14th, 2013 No comments

PRBL LANDUSE PLANNING – TUJUANNYA

 

Pemerintah daerah mempunyai tanggung-jawab untuk mengelola sumberdaya alam bagi generasi sekarang dan generasi masa depan , dan memiliki tanggung jawab kepada masyarakat untuk memastikan bahwa pengelolaan sumber daya merupakan keseimbangan antara kebutuhan masyarakat , kebutuhan ekonomi dan kelestarian lingkungan .

Perencanaan tata guna lahan secara terintegrasi merupakan suatu proses yang melibatkan lembaga , pemangku kepentingan , kelompok advokasi , masyarakat dan individu secara kolaboratif dalam pengambilan keputusan tentang penggunaan lahan dan pengelolaan sumber daya alam.

Perencanaan terpadu tata guna lahan memberikan mekanisme untuk membuat keputusan yang komprehensif tentang penggunaan tanah dan sumber daya .  Hal ini menetapkan arah manajemen dikoordinasikan untuk keperluan masa depan tanah dan sumber daya dan memungkinkan untuk evaluasi keberhasilan kegiatan manajemen dari waktu ke waktu . Hal ini berorientasi masa depan dan berulang , sehingga rencana yang akan diatur dalam respon terhadap perubahan nilai-nilai sosial dan keadaan baru .

Perencanaan merupakan bagian integral dari proses pengelolaan lahan dan sumber daya . Ini menyediakan sarana yang keputusan dikoordinasikan antara instansi provinsi bertanggung jawab dan dimana penggunaan lahan dan sumber daya manajemen konflik dan masalah diselesaikan . Rencana terpadu membantu untuk memfasilitasi tanggung jawab program publik oleh lembaga pengelolaan sumber daya .

Panduan perencanaan penggunaan lahan pada saat ini dan masa depan di daerah tertentu mengakibatkan hasil seperti :

  1. Keseimbangan di antara tujuan perlindungan , konservasi dan pembangunan ;
  2. Kepastian status Penggunaan lahan yang mempromosikan investasi dan stabilitas masyarakat;
  3. Arahan terpadu untuk kegiatan pengelolaan oleh pemerintah termasuk peningkatan komunikasi , resolusi dan menghindari konflik , kerjasama dan koordinasi lintas fungsional lembaga dan garis kewewenangan ;

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  5. Peluang bagi individu , kelompok dan pemerintah daerah untuk berpartisipasi dalam perencanaan dan untuk mempengaruhi keputusan pemerintah yang mempengaruhinya;
  6. Meningkatkan tingkat pengetahuan dan pemahaman bersama tentang keputusan guna-lahan dan sumber daya dan implikasinya ;
  7. Dukungan inisiatif penggunaan lahan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya , seperti strategi kawasan konservasi dan lindung , Praktek Forest-code , cadangan lahan hutan , kayu yang diijinkan untuk dipanen , negosiasi klaim lahan adat dan kegiatan reboisasi;
  8. Konteks yang digunakan untuk mengevaluasi proposal pembangunan lahan , mengurangi sumber daya yang dibutuhkan untuk proyek-proyek besar dan menyederhanakan persetujuan untuk kegiatan baru yang dapat diusulkan dari waktu ke waktu ,
  9. Arahan tentang waktu dan lokasi kegiatan penggunaan sumber daya lahan pada tingkat operasional .

 

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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LUD — MATLUP Map Analysis Techniques for Land Use Planning

December 14th, 2013 No comments

LUD  — MATLUP  Map Analysis Techniques for Land Use Planning


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Teknik Analisis Peta untuk Perencanaan Penggunaan Lahan ( Matlup ) pernah digunakan oleh Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Kota Alberta.
Tujuan keseluruhan MATLUP adalah untuk menentukan kelayakan penerapan teknologi GIS dalam kegiatan perencanaan pemanfaatan lahan . Tujuan ini meliputi empat bidang umum penilaian, yaitu : persyaratan kebutuhan data, definisi penggunaan lahan ,  persyaratan sistem , dan pemanfaatan hasil analisisnya untuk perencanaan lainnya .

MATLUP menganalisis masalah-masalah ini dengan menerapkan proses berbasis GIS untuk studi perencanaan penggunaan lahan .

Studi kasus seperti ini biasanya melibatkan pemilihan lokasi yang sesuai untuk  beberapa tipe penggunaan lahan, misalnya pertanian, peternakan, perkebunan, permukiman, dll., di suatu lokasi.
Kajian-kajian interdisipliner dilakukan untuk menentukan peringkat faktor-faktor perencanaan yang terkait dengan masalah perencanaan . Workshop seperti ini dapat menggunakan Metode  Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) untuk mengidentifikasi dan menilai faktor-faktor yang dianggap penting untuk pemilihan lokasi yang sesuai  untuk  tipe-tipe landuse.
Proses ini mengidentifikasi beberapa kategori umum faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi lokasi landuse, lingkungan ekologis, lingkungan sosial , karakteristik situs dan faktor-faktor ekonomi .
Ketersediaan pasokan air , masalah kualitas air dan peraturan penggunaan lahan merupakan faktor-faktor penentu utama dalam penilaian kesesuaian sebidang lahan untuk penggunaan tertentu.

Sebuah model landuse dirancang dengan menggunakan hasil-hasil AHP , dan data lahan digunakan untuk menganalisis peringkat kesesuaian tipe-tipe landuse untuk sebidang lahan tertentu.   GIS alat analisis spasial yang digunakan untuk menentukan peringkat ini didasarkan pada spektrum indeks kualitas lingkungan, seperti kualitas udara , air dan kualitas tanah , kompatibilitas penggunaan lahan , kepatuhan peraturan , aksesibilitas lokasi , pasokan air dan masalah lokasional lainnya.

Data yang digunakan untuk menganalisis peringkat ini diperoleh dan dikonversi dari berbagai sumber-sumber yang dianggap sahih. Sebuah survei tanah yang komprehensif diperlukan sebagai bagian dari Metode MATLUP .

Model menghitung peringkat untuk semua unit-lahan di wilayah perencanaan. Peringkat dinyatakan sebagai persentase , peningkatan nilai-nilai peringkat ini menunjukkan pilihan yang lebih baik untuk lokasi landuse. Model ini mengidentifikasi sejumlah lokasi pilihan yang berbeda untuk lokasi landuse. Selain itu, model juga dapat menunjukkan lokasi (unit-unit lahan) yang tidak sesuai untuk suatu tipe landuse.  Namun demikian, beberapa peringkat unit-lahan  mungkin saja tidak konsisten dengan pertimbangan perencanaan landuse yang realistis . Masalah-masalah ini biasanya berkaitan dengan disain model dan implementasinya .

Model MATLUP merupakan aplikasi unik yang tidak dapat secara langsung ditransfer ke masalah perencanaan lainnya . Namun demikian, proses ini menunjukkan bahwa teknologi GIS dapat diterapkan pada masalah perencanaan .

Selengkapnya lihat:
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/INF_113.html

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|\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g 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LANDUSE PLANNING: MITIGASI EMISI GAS RUMAH KACA

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING: MITIGASI EMISI GAS RUMAH KACA

 

Penggunaan lahan dan perencanaan penggunaan lahan memiliki implikasi yang mendalam untuk mitigasi emisi gas rumah kaca ( GRK ) .

Perencanaan penggunaan lahan lokal juga cocok untuk memainkan peran kepemimpinan penting dalam mengatasi dampak perubahan iklim dengan mendorong perubahan pola pembangunan untuk mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca dan dampaknya .

Penelitian telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui bagaimana mengubah konsep perubahan iklim menjadi alat perencanaan penggunaan lahan lokal dan mengintegrasikan mitigasi perubahan iklim dan strategi adaptasi dalam perencanaan penggunaan lahan lokal .

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji bagaimana penggunaan lahan berkaitan dengan pengurangan emisi gas rumah kaca .
Pertanyaan yang spesifik  (1) Sejauh mana mitigasi gas rumah kaca melalui kebijakan perencanaan penggunaan lahan di daerah yang tumbuh cepat ?  (2 ) Apakah variabel perencanaan tata guna lahan yang paling berpengaruh terhadap mitigasi gas rumah kaca ?  (3 ) Bagaimana yurisdiksi lokal ditingkatkan untuk mengatasi perubahan iklim dalam rencana guna lahannya?

Hasil deskriptif menunjukkan bahwa yurisdiksi lokal memiliki kesadaran yang sangat rendah untuk pengurangan GRK dalam rencana penggunaan lahannya. Selain itu , mereka membuat analisis yang snagat terbatas untuk mendeteksi hubungan emisi GRK dan pengembangan penggunaan lahan . Temuan positif adalah bahwa beberapa kebijakan perencanaan tata guna lahan telah diadopsi untuk mengurangi gas rumah kaca dalam rencana penggunaan lahan saat ini .

Hasil analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa beberapa variabel eksternal (misalnya pendidikan , dukungan teknis ) secara signifikan mempengaruhi kapasitas lokal untuk pengurangan gas rumah kaca .

Penelitian ini memberikan informasi penting bagi para pengambil keputusan yang tertarik dalam upaya mengurangi dampak negatif perubahan iklim global terhadap masyarakat lokal .

 

Sumber:

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through local land use planning.  Zhenghong Tans and C. Hussey. 2009. 

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IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 6 50 2021.

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LANDUSE PLANNING: PENILAIAN SUMBERDAYA AIR

December 8th, 2013 No comments


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LANDUSE PLANNING: PENILAIAN SUMBERDAYA AIR

 

Masyarakat seringkali harus membuat keputusan penting tentang penggunaan lahan tanpa pemahaman rinci tentang efeknya terhadap sumber air minum atau sensitivitas terhadap potensi kontaminasi .

Hal ini mungkin lebih banyak terjadi dalam kaitannya dnegan air bawah tanah daripada sumber air permukaan .

Program Assessment Sumber Air dapat  dirancang untuk dipakai masyarakat dengan informasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan rencana perlindungan air minum .

Secara khusus, mengidentifikasi penilaian sumber daya , persediaan potensi sumber kontaminan di daerah resapan , dan analisis kerentanan air minum terhadap sumber-sumber kontaminan potensial.

Masing-masing elemen ini juga dapat membantu masyarakat membuat keputusan tentang penggunaan lahan secara lebih tepat .

Permasalahan tipikal Penggunaan lahan yang dapat dianalisis dalam kaitanhya dnegan penilaian Sumber Air, meliputi [ 1 ] penggunaan lahan apa- saja yang terletak di daerah resapan air , [ 2 ] Apakah penggunaan lahan tertentu berada di bagian hulu dari sumur atau mata air , [ 3 ] Apa kerentanan akuifer yang memasok air bagi masyarakat , [ 4 ] di mana sebaiknya masyarakat mencari sumur baru , [ 5 ] Bagaimana arah aliran air bawah-tanah di daerah tersebut , [ 6 ] Dimana sumber air minum yang paling sensitif terhadap kontaminasi , dll.

Meskipun tidak mampu memberikan jawaban atas semua pertanyaan kuantitatif tentang penggunaan lahan , hasil penilaian dapat memberikan informasi bagi masyarakat dan  dapat menunjukkan secara khusus informasi tambahan apa saja yang diperlukan .

Penilaian ini memungkinkan pejabat pemerintah daerah untuk memiliki pemahaman yang lebih baik mengenai sumber daya , membantu mereka dalam membuat keputusan penggunaan lahan , dan dalam menanggapi pertanyaan dan kekhawatiran yang diungkapkan oleh publik .

 

Sumber:

Source Water Assessments and Land Use Planning.
Dennis Nelson 2002.  Drinking Water Program, Oregon Department of Human Services
Springfield, Oregon.

Presented at Groundwater Foundation Annual Conference
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PRBL LANDUSE PLANNING: 10 LANGKAH SISTEMATIS

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  10 LANGKAH SISTEMATIS

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Langkah-langkah SISTEMATIS yang disarankan dalam perencanaan penggunaan lahan adalah :

  1. Langkah 1 – Tentukan apa yang ingin dicapai .  Mendefinisikan situasi saat ini; menentukan kebutuhan masyarakat ;  menyetujui dan merinci tujuan-tujuan
  2. Langkah 2 – Merencanakan kegiatan perencanaan guna lahan. Mengatur pekerjaan yang diperlukan . Memilih metode yang sesuai.
  3. Langkah 3 – Identifikasi masalah dan peluang di wilayah perencanaan , termasuk persyaratan legal-formal.
  4. Langkah 4 – Rancangan solusi alternatif . Mengidentifikasi atau desain alternatif jenis penggunaan lahan yang mungkin untuk mencapai tujuan .
  5. Langkah 5 – Evaluasi kesesuaian lahan . Untuk setiap jenis penggunaan lahan , ditetapkan persyaratannya dan mencocokkan persyaratan ini dengan data tanah untuk menilai kesesuaian fisiknya .
  6. Langkah 6 – Menilai alternatif . Untuk setiap kombinasi yang cocok secara fisik penggunaan lahan dan data tanah , dilakukan pendugaan dampak lingkungan , ekonomi , dan sosialnya .
  7. Langkah 7 – Memilih alternatif yang terbaik penggunaan lahan . Menggunakan metode yang terpilih untuk pengambilan keputusan .
  8. Langkah 8 – Menyusun rencana penggunaan lahan , mengalokasikan penggunaan lahan untuk bidang tanah , dan membuat ketentuan manajemen yang tepat .
  9. Langkah 9 – Menempatkan rencana ke dalam tindakan . Tindakan oleh para pengambil keputusan ,  lembaga-lembaga sektoral , dan para pengguna lahan .
  10. Langkah 10 – Belajar dari rencana . Memantau pencapaian  menuju tujuan , merevisi rencana berdasarkan pengalaman dan mengakomodasi tujuan-tujuan baru .

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LANDUSE PLANNING: PENDEKATAN ZONASI AGROEKOLOGI

December 8th, 2013 No comments


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LANDUSE PLANNING:  PENDEKATAN ZONASI AGROEKOLOGI

 

Untuk menilai kapasitas produktif SUATU lahan di tingkat regional dan global , FAO telah mengembangkan konsep Zona agroekologi dan applikasinya untuk menentukan penduduk potensial yang  mendukung kapasitas produksi lahan pada tiga tingkat penggunaan input yang berbeda.

Delineasi zone agroecologis dilakukan oleh pusat penelitian pertanian dari Kelompok konsultatif Penelitian Pertanian Internasional ( CGIAR ), dan dengan program penelitian Ekosistem Terestrial Internasional Geosfer – BiosphereP rogramme ( IGBP ) .

Methodologi AEZ juga digunakan untuk penilaian efek pada kapasitas produktif dan kapasitas manusia akibat perubahan iklim ( efek rumah kaca ) di tingkat global , regional , dan negara.

Aplikasi di tingkat negara pada kondisi iklim sekarang sudah dilakukan , dengan pembiayaan ad-hoc , mislanya di Kenya , Mozambik , Bangladesh , Filipina , Indonesia , dan Malaysia ;  dan seluruh China . Permintaan untuk studi AEZ tingkat negara semakin bertambah dan diharapkan bahwa keahlian , yang saat ini ada di FAO , dapat dikembangkan dan diperkuat .

Unsur-unsur yang digunakan dalam AEZ adalah (a) tipe fotosintesis dan suhu persyaratan tanaman individu (C3 dan C4 tanaman), (b) data agroklimat rinci (menentukan periode masa tanam , berdasarkan rezim termal dan ketersediaan air sepanjang tahun), dan (c) skala kecil, yaitu inventarisasi tanah resolusi rendah (terutama mengenai kapasitas penyimpanan lengas tanah). Unsur-unsur ini kemudian dikombinasikan untuk menilai kesesuaian agroklimat untuk setiap tanaman, jenis tanah, dan tingkat input eksternal (tinggi, sedang, atau rendah).

Parameter yang tidak dimasukkan adalah  (a) sumber daya hidrologis lahan (air permukaan  dan air tanah), pengabaikan yang tidak dapat dihindari karena tidak adanya data sumberdaya ini di tingkat regional dan nasional; (b) parameter iklim tertentu yang penting di posisi lintang yang lebih tinggi (hari-panjang, permafrost) karena penelitian di daerah tersebut tidak diminta oleh FAO dan (c) nilai tutupan lahan alami (hutan , padang gembalaan dan hijauan pakan ternak , keanekaragaman hayati, pelindung vegetatif terhadap bahaya degradasi lahan).

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PRBL LANDUSE PLANNING: KONFLIK LAHAN

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:   KONFLIK LAHAN

 

Konflik lahan merupakan fenomena alam dan mengacu pada kepentingan yang sah tetapi berlawanan,  kegiatan  dan dampak lingkungan akibat dari berbagai tujuan dan sasaran yang berbeda-beda dari banyak kelompok dan individu yang terlibat, atau dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan dan pemanfaatan lahan.

Dalam situasi yang ekstrim, konfliklahan dapat dapat mengakibatkan konflik fisik atau perang, tetapi dalam banyak kasus konflik lahan dapat dikendalikan oleh norma-norma yang diterima secara sosial , menurut adat atau hukum, dan diselesaikan melalui kompromi dan pertukaran nilai-nilai ekonomi dalam kerangka negosiasi. Konflik adalah wajar dan akan selalu ada. Konflikmlahan tidak mungkin dihilangkan sama sekali sehingga mekanisme penyelesaian konflik lahan merupakan unsur penting dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan.

Asal – usul Konflik Lahan:

  1.      Dampak pemberdayaan terhadap yurisdiksi tradisi dan kepemimpinan adat (konflik tokoh)
  2.      Pengaruh kepemimpinan terhadap penggunaan lahan
  3.      Persaingan untuk mendapatkan sumberdaya dan penggunaan lahan
  4.      Kepemilikan lahan (sistem hukum paralel)
  5.      Konflik antara kebijakan yang berbeda
  6.      LSM dengan pemerintah

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  8.      Permintaan vs. lingkungan
  9.      Konflik kepentingan dan kebaikan bersama
  10.      Kepemtingan komunal dibandingkan kepentingan komersial
  11.      Budaya  vs. kepentingan ekonomi
  12.      Keadilan sosial vs. perekonomian nasional
  13.      Konflik dalam restorasi lahan
  14.      Konflik antara kelompok-kelompok yang ada dalam masyarakat
  15.      Pelebaran kesenjangan kemiskinan
  16.      Kepentingan budaya vs. kepentingan ekonomi.

(sumber: Proceedings of Workshop on Integrated Planning and Management of Land Resources. Mbabane-Rome. Swaziland, 1998).

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LANDUSE PLANNING: SIFAT DATA DAN INFORMASI

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:   SIFAT DATA DAN INFORMASI

Buy cheap Viagra online

Data sumberdaya lahan :

  1. - iklim
  2. - Bentang alam dan lahan
  3.   Tutupan lahan
  4. - Sumber daya air

Data penggunaan lahan terkait :
- Penggunaan lahan saat ini dan karakteristiknya
- dipilih karakteristik fisiologis tanaman (seperti menentukan persyaratan ekologis )
- Tipe penggunaan lahan ( LUT ) dan sistem produksi ( sekarang dan potensial)
- Persyaratan ekologis dari LUTs , sistem produksi , penggunaan lahan

Data Sosial – ekonomi :
- Populasi ( termasuk usia dan distribusi jenis kelamin , stakeholder)
- Kondisi hidup ( termasuk beban kerja , aspek budaya , tradisi , dll )
- Akses ke pasar
- Biaya produksi dan harga produk
- Sosio – ekonomi masyarakat

Data dan Informasi Hukum:

  1. - Dokumen-dokumen kebijakan pemerintah yang relevan , hukum dan peraturan yang berhubungan dengan tanah
  2. - Sistem sekarang alokasi lahan
  3. - Informasi kepemilikan lahan
  4. - Kepemilikan tradisional dan pengguna hak

Informasi kelembagaan :
- Melibatkan lembaga dan mandat mereka , sumber daya dan infrastruktur
- Hubungan antara lembaga
- Jasa pendukung ( penyuluhan , dll )

Data dan informasi Umum:
- Infrastruktur, aksesibilitas

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LANDUSE PLANNING: BEBERAPA Teknik RRA / PRA

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  BEBERAPA Teknik RRA / PRA

  1.      Learning by doing
  2.      Wawancara Semi-terstruktur
  3.     Wawancara berantai dengan topik-topik terkait
  4.      Pemetaan partisipatif dan pemodelan
  5.     Jadwal-waktu; daftar acara dan tanggal perkiraan
  6.      Diagram musiman
  7.      Diagram partisipatif
  8.      Analisis organisasi
  9.      Indikator-kunci lokal
  10.      Studi Kasus dan cerita
  11.      Penulisan catatan dan laporan
  12.      Mencari dan mewawancarai informan kunci
  13.      Diskusi dan kegiatan kelompok
  14.      Menggunakan warga desa untuk memimpin pembahasan

  15. Buy cheap Viagra online

  16.      Transek
  17.      Sejarah lokal dan analisis trend
  18.      Analisis Mata Pencaharian
  19.      Peringkat kekayaan
  20.      Ranking dan Skoring
  21.      Probing pertanyaan
  22.      Anggota tim interchanging
  23.      Brainstorming.
  24. …………

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ETIKA PROFESI LANDUSE PLANNING: METODE PERENCANAAN

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  METODE PERENCANAAN

 

Perencanaan penggunaan lahan pada dasarnya terdiri dari proses pengambilan keputusan YANG LOGIS dimana sumberdaya lahan dievaluasi dalam konteks tujuan, dan pilihan guna-lahan diidentifikasi yang dapat diimplementasikan oleh pengguna lahan.


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Perencanaan penggunaan lahan didasarkan pada premis bahwa sumberdaya lahan bervariasi dan bahwa sifat dan karakteristik lahan menentukan batas-batas kemungkinan pilihan penggunaan lahan.
Seperangkat prosedur teknis dan sistematis diperlukan untuk mengevaluasi sumber daya dan untuk memandu pilihan guna-lahan yang berkelanjutan dan yang memenuhi tujuan dari pengguna lahan.
Pasar, infrastruktur dan faktor eksternal lainnya serta preferensi pribadi juga dipertimbangkan dalam mencapai keputusan akhir penggunaan lahan.
Bagan berikut  menjelaskan proses iterasi dan berulang dengan sembilan langkah penting. Metode ini tidak tergantung pada skala dan tingkat detail, kecuali bahwa pada tingkat individual kebun atau lahanusaha pertanian biasanya hanya satu pemangku kepentingan yang terlibat sedangkan pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi ada lebih banyak stakeholder dan mereka lebih beragam.
Sifat dan detail analisis dan metode yang digunakan tergantung pada tujuan rencana penggunaan lahan dan sumber daya yang tersedia. Dalam banyak situasi rencana yang komprehensif tidak dihasilkan dalam sekali kerja,  tetapi bagian demi bagiannya, yang didefinisikan oleh lokasi atau sektor, yang ditangani secara individual sesuai dengan urgensi komparatif dan ketersediaan sumber daya.
Misalnya, jika lahan penggembalaan desa yang rusak parah, beberapa tindakan perbaikan dapat diletakkan di lokasi tanpa rencana penggunaan lahan yang komprehensif dari seluruh tanah desa, kemudian  ketika sumber daya menjadi tersedia maka bagian lain dari lahan desa dapat dikembangkan dengan irigasi skala kecil.
Perencanaan sektoral biasanya tidak ideal, mungkin menyajikan jalan ke depan dalam kondisi sumberdaya terbatas atau koordinasi yang sulit. Perkembangan dalam satu sektor harus mempertimbangkan perkembangan masa lalu,  masa sekarang dan masa depan di sektor lain, dan kemungkinan interaksi (tanaman-ternak, ternak-satwa liar, dll).
Urutannya adalah berulang-ulang dan membutuhkan penyesuaian konstan sebagai elemen yang berbeda , terutama kondisi keuangan atau ekonomi , cenderung variabel atau bahkan tidak stabil . Jika rencana akhir atau kebijakan tidak diterima oleh semua pemangku kepentingan , atau hasil pertama dari rencana tidak memuaskan , prosedur perencanaan harus ditinjau untuk memperbaiki kesalahan atau memasukkan unsur-unsur yang hilang . Sebuah sistem monitoring dan evaluasi yang menyertainya akan memfasilitasi keberhasilan proses ini .Ada berbagai metode perencanaan penggunaan lahan yang mungkin tepat pada skala yang berbeda dan tingkat detail, dan penekanan komparatif dapat bervariasi dalam lingkungan fisik , sosial-ekonomi dan politik yang berbeda . Pada tingkat nasional dan sub – nasional , bantuan teknis tersebut akan diberikan oleh profesional perencana penggunaan lahan , tetapi di tingkat desa diantisipasi bahwa bantuan teknis yang diperlukan dapat diberikan oleh penyuluh yang dilatih khusus , bekerja untuk pemerintah , sektor swasta , atau LSM .

Berbagai alat untuk setiap langkah dalam metode perencanaan diuraikan dalam bagan.  Presentasi ini terutama ditujukan untuk para profesional dan praktisi teknis dalam perencanaan penggunaan lahan serta pengambil keputusan dan pembuat kebijakan .

Selengkapnya lihat:

http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/x3810e/x3810e07.htm#15

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PRBL LANDUSE PLANNING: PENDEKATAN TERPADU

December 8th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

LANDUSE PLANNING:  PENDEKATAN TERPADU

 

Perencanaan penggunaan lahan merupakan langkah penting di sepanjang jalan menuju pemanfaatan sumberdaya secara berkelanjutan. Perencanaan penggunaan lahan seharusnya tidak menjadi prosedur top-down, tetapi mekanisme pendukung keputusan, dimaksudkan untuk memandu pengguna tanah atau pembuat keputusan melalui proses memilih opsi penggunaan lahan terbaik, atau berbagai pilihan, konsisten dengan nya atau tujuan nya.

Seringkali, proses perencanaan yang mempromosikan interaksi antara pengguna lahan, pengambil keputusan dan staf profesional dan teknis, lebih penting daripada dokumentasi dari rencana yang dihasilkan.

Pendekatan perencanaan pengelolaan sumber daya lahan bersifat terintegrasi (terpadu) dan interaktif.

Terpadu dalam hal

  1. Menggabungkan unsur-unsur dari pendekatan bottom-up yang  didasarkan pada partisipasi akar rumput, dan aspek-aspek top-down dalam penilaian dan evaluasi pilihan sumber daya lahan
  2. Memperhitungkan variabel biofisik dan sosial-ekonomi yang kompleks yang menentukan sistem penggunaan lahan
  3. Memperhatikan aspek hukum dan kelembagaan yang memfasilitasi pelaksanaan rencana.

Interaktif dalam hal:

  1. Proses negosiasi, di mana pengguna lahan berinteraksi antara mereka sendiri dan dengan spesialis
  2. Tingkat yang berbeda-beda (nasional, tingkat sub-nasional dan lokal) berinteraksi dalam proses perencanaan.
Pada dasarnya , pendekatan dilakukan untuk mewujudkan kemitraan interaktif , antara pemerintah dan masyarakat sipil , untuk mengatasi masalah bersama guna mengelola sumber daya lahan berkelanjutan yang saling menguntungkannya.  Oleh karena itu diperlukan komitmen dari pihak pemerintah dan masyarakat . Hal ini konsisten dengan prinsip-prinsip good governance sebagai prasyarat untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan .

Perencanaan terpadu untuk pengelolaan sumber daya lahan  selalu bersifat demand-driven , meskipun permintaan mungkin muncul akibat dari masalah atau peluang pembangunan, baik yang dirasakan di desa atau tingkat regional , atau tingkat nasional . Hal ini menandai adanya kelemahan prosedur perencanaan top-down yang sering digunakan sebagai instrumen rutin pembangunan .

Bagan berikut  menjelaskan pertukaran dan arus pengetahuan , keterkaitan dan tindakan dalam pengembangan interaktif . Struktur empat – tingkat ini berusaha menuju optimalisasi dari kombinasi pendekatan bottom-up dan top-down untuk pembangunan, baik dengan mendorong kemandirian dan dengan memperkuat hubungan antara lembaga pemerintah dan masyarakat , dan mewujudkan hal-hal berikut :

  1. Program aksi yang kuat dan dinamis oleh pemangku kepentingan di tingkat akar rumput , suatu tindakan untuk pembangunan dan konservasi serta efektif menanggapi banyak masalah lokal dan mengatasinya lebih efektif dan dengan biaya yang lebih rendah dari pemerintah pusat .
  2. Mekanisme yang efisien untuk menginformasikan kebutuhan yang dirasakan dan prioritas , untuk mendorong alokasi sumber daya , dan untuk mempengaruhi evolusi struktur kelembagaan dan program ke arah bentuk yang lebih efisien dan berorientasi pada tugas .

Di tingkat desa atau masyarakat , kelompok pengelolaan sumberdaya lokal menjelaskan kebutuhan dan tujuannya melalui negosiasi . Kebutuhan dan informasi ditransmisikan ke tingkat daerah dan akhirnya ke tingkat nasional , yang merespon dengan informasi dan bantuan teknis yang sesuai . Hal ini juga menjadi jelas bahwa tingkat daerah dan nasional memerlukan informasi yang hanya dapat disediakan di tingkat lokal . Arus dan interaksi tidak lagi searah .

INTERACTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

 

Tujuh faktor kunci yang terkait dengan perencanaan terpadu untuk pengelolaan sumber daya lahan diabstraksikan dalam bagan berikut:

 

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http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/x3810e/x3810e06.htm#TopOfPage

 

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PRBL LANDUSE PLANNING : PEMBANGUNAN PEDESAAAN

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING :  PEMBANGUNAN PEDESAAAN

 

Perencanaan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan merupakan bagian integral dari program pembangunan pedesaan , serta berbagai program pembangunan dengan komponen-komponennya,  baik di wilayah pedesaan maupun kawasan perkotaan.

Penggunaan lahan tidak mempertimbangkan penggunaan pertanian saja, tetapi juga meliputi daerah alami, hutan, sungai dan daerah perkotaan .  Perencanaan penggunaan lahan sering memiliki konotasi negatif karena secara tradisional dikaitkan dengan prosedur top-down. Dalam pembangunan ekonomi yang terpusat , pengguna lahan telah memerintahkan bagaimana menggunakan lahannya berdasarkan penilaian ilmiah tentang kemampuan atau kesesuaian lahan.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir , definisi guna-lahan  telah bergerak ke arah menggunakan kapasitas perencanaan yang lebih konsultatif , sebagai mekanisme untuk mendukung keputusan dari pengguna lahan dalam mencapai tujuannya . Perencanaan lahan sebagai salah satu langkah dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan .

Pedoman FAO untuk perencanaan penggunaan lahan ( FAO , 1993) mendefinisikan perencanaan tata guna lahan sebagai :

Perencanaan penggunaan lahan adalah penilaian yang sistematis lahan dan potensi air , alternatif untuk penggunaan lahan dan kondisi ekonomi dan sosial dalam rangka untuk memilih dan mengadopsi pilihan terbaik penggunaan lahan . Tujuannya adalah untuk memilih dan mempraktekkannya dalam menggunakan lahan yang terbaik untuk memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat sambil menjaga sumber daya lahan untuk masa depan .  Kekuatan pendorong dalam perencanaan lahan adalah kebutuhan untuk perubahan , kebutuhan untuk meningkatkan manajemen atau kebutuhan untuk pola yang sangat berbeda dari penggunaan lahan, semua ini  ditentukan oleh perubahan keadaan .

Agenda 21 , hasil dari Konferensi PBB untuk Lingkungan dan Pembangunan di Rio de Janeiro tentang Keanekaragaman hayati , dan konvensi pasca – Rio seperti yang berhubungan dengan biodiversitas dan dessertifikasi, telah menyerukan pendekatan yang lebih terintegrasi untuk perencanaan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan . Mereka menekankan perlunya keterlibatan aktif dan partisipasi semua pemangku kepentingan , khususnya di tingkat lokal , dalam pengambilan keputusan tentang penggunaan lahan dan manajemen lahan . Dalam konteks ini , perencanaan penggunaan lahan dianggap sebagai mekanisme untuk mendukung keputusan pembangunan, bukan sekedar prosedur evaluasi teknis , dan lebih dekat dalam definisi konseptual .

Perencanaan penggunaan lahan (atau Sumberdaya Lahan) adalah prosedur yang sistematis dan berulang-ulang yang dilakukan dalam rangka menciptakan lingkungan yang memungkinkan untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan dari sumberdaya lahan yang memenuhi kebutuhan dan tuntutan masyarakat.  Prosedur ini menilai fisik, sosio-ekonomi, potensi kelembagaan dan hukum, serta kendala-kendala sehubungan dengan penggunaan optimal dan berkelanjutan dari sumber dayatanah, dan memberdayakan masyarakat untuk membuat keputusan tentang bagaimana mengalokasikan sumberdaya tersebut.

Kendala Terkait dengan Pendekatan Sebelumnya
Orang-orang di daerah pedesaan secara terus menerus dihadapkan dengan kesulitan praktis untuk mencapai tujuan “peningkatan produksi”, “mengangkat standar hidup”, “konservasi sumber daya” dan “swasembada pangan”. Di seluruh dunia banyak proyek pembangunan yang berhubungan dengan sumber daya lahan telah mengalami kegagalan, program-program lainnya hanya sebagian berhasil. Manfaat berkelanjutan proyek tersebut seringkali snagat kecil dalam kaitannya dengan biaya dan masukan yang telah dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah atau lembaga donor.

Program-program pembangunan pada dasarnya adalah respon terhadap masalah yang dirasakan dan peluang pembangunannya. Meskipun diakui bahwa banyak yang bisa dipelajari dari proyek-proyek yang sukses, beberapa pelajaran yang paling umum dipelajari dari program pembangunan kurang berhasil diberikan berikut ini:

Beberapa Alasan Kegagalan beberapa program Pembangunan Pedesaan:


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  1. Kurangnya kebijakan yang jelas dan konsisten untuk penggunaan lahan yang berkelanjutan
  2. Kegagalan untuk mengatasi tujuan yang sah dari pengguna lahan dan untuk melibatkan mereka dalam proses perencanaan
  3. Kegagalan untuk mengatasi semua masalah yang relevan dengan masalah
  4. Kegagalan untuk mengintegrasikan semua disiplin ilmu dan kegiatan yang diperlukan
  5. Penekanan secara berlebihan pada solusi teknis
  6. Masalah-masalah kelembagaan
  7. Peraturan yang tidak memadai atau tidak efektif dalam hal penggunaan lahan
  8. Kurangnya insentif yang tepat sasaran, atau insentif yang tidak pantas
  9. Kekurangan dana (perencanaan yang baik biasanya mahal)
  10. Kurangnya akses terhadap informasi, alat atau pelatihan untuk membuat keputusan yang baik.

Tujuan utama dari bantuan dalam perencanaan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan adalah memperkuat institusi lokal sehingga mereka mampu menangani dan memecahkan masalah-maalah strategis. Namun demikian,  pada saat ini , sebagian besar bantuan teknis di bidang perencanaan penggunaan lahan atau pengelolaan lahan , dan sebagian besar proyek , menempatkan penekanan pada solusi teknis . Para Ahli eksternal dapat memainkan peran dominan dalam identifikasi masalah dan pelaksanaan program . Jika staf lokal tidak terlatih dalam penerapan metode teknis , dan tidak sepenuhnya terlibat dalam perkembangannya, maka tidak ada rasa kepemilikan intelektual dan sistem tidak digunakan atau dipertahankan setelah proyek berakhir.

Terlepas dari kelemahan ini , proyek-proyek tersebut jarang mampu mengatasi isu-isu kelembagaan yang lebih besar di tingkat pemerintah daerah dan di tingkat akar rumput .

 

Peningkatan Kualitas Pendekatan Perencanaan Terpadu Pengelolaan Berkelanjutan Sumberdaya Lahan,  sangat diperlukan.

Perencanaan penggunaan lahan konvensional seringkali tidak berhasil menghasilkan sebuah peningkatan yang substansial dalam pengelolaan lahan , atau untuk memenuhi tujuan-tujuan prioritas dari pengguna lahan . Akibatnya , program pembangunan pedesaan harus diintegrasikan untuk dapat memenuhi tujuan produksi dan konservasi . Dalam mempromosikan pendekatan terpadu dalam perencanaan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan , Bab 10 dari Agenda 21 mengidentifikasi kebutuhan spesifik berikut :

  1. Pengembangan kebijakan yang akan menghasilkan penggunaan terbaik atas lahan dan pengelolaan lahan
  2. Peningkatan dan penguatan sistem perencanaan , pengelolaan , pemantauan dan evaluasi
  3. Penguatan institusi dan mekanisme koordinasi
  4. Penciptaan mekanisme untuk memfasilitasi keterlibatan aktif dan partisipasi masyarakat dan orang-orang di tingkat lokal.

Pendekatan yang lebih baik diperlukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut . Hal ini harus memperhitungkan beberapa masalah berikut:

  1. Program yang lebih holistik dan komprehensif ,  semua faktor yang signifikan dalam kaitannya dengan pengembangan sumberdaya lahan dan konservasi lingkungan dibahas dan dimasukkan .Hal ini berarti bahwa proses perencanaan harus mencakup dan mempertimbangkan semua kebutuhan lahan , dan juga bahwa dalam memilih penggunaan yang “terbaik ” atas suatu bidang lahan, dalam hal kebutuhan dan tujuannya , semua kemungkinan opsi penggunaan lahan harus dipertimbangkan , tidak hanya tanaman pertanian saja.
  2. Semua kegiatan dan masukan yang terintegrasi dan terkoordinasi satu sama lain . Harus ada built-in mekanisme untuk menggabungkan upaya dan masukan dari semua disiplin ilmu dan kelompok kepentingan.
  3. Semua tindakan didasarkan pada pemahaman yang jelas tentang tujuan dan kebutuhan pengguna lahan individu alami dan sah , dan bagaimana hal ini mempengaruhi proses produksi dan eksploitasi sumberdaya lahan di satu sisi , dan di sisi lain adalah suatu kerangka insentif , sanksi dan negosiasi yang perlu dikembangkan untuk menjamin keberlanjutan , dan kebutuhan jangka panjang dari semua individu , anggota masyarakat lokal dan global.
  4. Semua tindakan dan program didasarkan pada konsensus tanpa paksaan, dan kemitraan antara pemerintah dan lembaga-lembaga lainnya , dan orang-orang atau stakeholder terkait.  Hal ini mensyaratkan bahwa orang-orang yang well-informed akan dapat berkonsultasi , dan ada mekanisme yang disediakan untuk memastikan berlangsungnya konsultasi atau uji publik ini .
  5. Struktur kelembagaan yang dibutuhkan untuk mengembangkan , memperdebatkan dan melaksanakan usulan yang disepakati diletakkan di semua tingkatan .

 

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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LANDUSE PLANNING: Sumberdaya Tanah dan Air

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  Sumberdaya  Tanah dan Air

Keputusan Penggunaan Lahan .
Mengidentifikasi hasil-hasil yang diinginkan ( termasuk standar atau tujuan berdasarkan regulasi sumberdaya air bersih) . Mengidentifikasi daerah aliran sungai atau lahan-lahan tertentu yang mungkin memerlukan perlindungan khusus dari sudut pandang masalah kesehatan manusia , kesehatan ekosistem , atau penggunaan publik lainnya . Untuk daerah riparian , mengidentifikasi rasio yang diinginkan lebar / kedalaman , kondisi streambank , kondisi substrat saluran air, dan karakteristik vegetasi lain. Mengidentifikasi pembatasan penggunaan bentang-lahan atau langkah-langkah perlindungan lainnya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat , dan persyaratan kualitas air setempat . Mengidentifikasi langkah-langkah , termasuk mengajukan hak air berdasarkan prosedur izin yang berlaku , untuk memastikan ketersediaan air untuk beberapa penggunaan manajemen dan fungsi , riparian yang sehat dan sistem lahan yang sehat.

Keputusan Implementasi .
Mengidentifikasi peluang pengelolaan yang spesifik dan prioritasnya dengan menggunakan pendekatan DAS dan penilaian DAS . Mengidentifikasi praktek pengelolaan yang terbaik untuk lahan (situs tertentu atau  basin tertentu , riparian , atau nonpoint sources) dan teknik rehabilitasi yang dibutuhkan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat , negara, dan persyaratan kualitas air setempat .

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Berkonsultasi dan berkoordinasi dengan pemerintah daerah , pemerintah pusat, dan lembaga lokal , sesuai dnegan peraturan perundangan yang berlaku.  Berkolaborasi dengan kelompok masyarakat penghuni DAS ketika mengembangkan rencana kegiatan .

 

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LANDUSE PLANNING: SUMBERDAYA ALAM, HAYATI DNA BUDAYA

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  SUMBERDAYA ALAM, HAYATI DNA BUDAYA
A.  Sumberdaya Alam  – Udara

Keputusan Penggunaan Lahan .

Mengidentifikasi hasil-hasil yang diinginkan, kriteria dan pembatasan yang ada, bekerja sama dengan badan regulasi kualitas udara , untuk mengarahkan kegiatan menghasilkan emisi, sesuai dengan peraturan perundangan:
1 . Baku mutu udara secara anasional  ;
2 . Rencana Implementasi  ;
3 . Pengendalian Pencemaran udara  ;
4 . Pencegahan Kerusakan yang signifikan , termasuk dampak visibilitas

5 . Analisis Kesesuaian dan Penentuan Kelayakannya .

Keputusan Implementasi .
Mengidentifikasi strategi-strategi spesifik pengendalian emisi , proses , dan tindakan untuk mencapai kondisi kualitas udara yang diinginkan .

Uji Publik.
Konsultasikan , mengkoordinasikan , dan mematuhi baku mutu lokal,  daerah dan pusat dan kualitas udara setempat , seperti yang dipersyaratkan oleh peraturan perundangan yang berlaku , rencana pembangungan daerah.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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LANDUSE PLANNING : PRINSIP-PRINSIP PERENCANANA KOLABORATIF

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING :  PRINSIP-PRINSIP  PERENCANANA KOLABORATIF
“Kolaborasi” menyiratkan bahwa masyarakat , pemerintah daerah, pemerintah pusat dan komunitas lokal akan terlibat, sebelum proses perencanaan secara resmi dimulai, bukan hanya pada titik-titik tertentu yang ditetapkan oleh peraturan dan kebijakan formal.

A. Kenali peran-serta Komunitas lokal , negara, dan pemerintah daerah dalam proses perencanaan.
Hal ini diperlukan partisipasi aktif oleh pejabat setempat dan jajarannya hingga ke tingkat yang dapat diterapkan, dengan rencana resmi yang disetujui oleh komunitas laokal, negara , dan pemerintah daerah,  asalkan rencana ini konsisten dengan hukum dan peraturan. Keterlibatan awal akan membantu memastikan bahwa perencana mengembangkan keputusan penggunaan lahan yang didukung oleh semua pihak dan sesuai dengan yurisdiksi yang berlaku di daerah perencanaan semaksimal mungkin.

B. Jadilah “inklusif” dan secara eksplisit mengakui kelompok-kelompok kepentingan yang ada, individu, industri, perusahaan, dan lembaga lainnya.
Sebuah proses kolaboratif yang efektif untuk perencanaan lahan publik menjamin bahwa kepentingan lokal, regional, dan nasional harus dapat terintegrasi dengan sebaik-baiknya. Kepentingan yang lebih besar harus dicari dan didorong. Jangkauan ke depan  yang efektif adalah cara terbaik untuk menggali hambatan partisipasi .  Ketersediaan beberapa pilihan untuk berpartisipasi.

C. Jelaskan otoritas kelompok kolaboratif, termasuk perencana, dan memastikan akuntabilitasnya.
Peserta harus memahami peran dari semua pihak dalam upaya perencanaan. Jika upaya perencanaan meliputi peserta lain, maka tanggung jawab hukum atau otoritas pengambilan keputusan, masing-masing harus diidentifikasi secara jelas. Keputusan yang dibuat oleh masing-masing yurisdiksi harus berada dalam otoritas mereka sendiri. Perencana mempertahankan otoritas pengambilan keputusan untuk semua keputusan di lahan. Perencana tidak perlu menjadi agen utama untuk berpartisipasi dalam upaya kolaboratif.

D. Gunakan kolaborasi untuk meningkatkan dan melengkapi persyaratan keterlibatan masyarakat

Individu atau kelompok yang tidak mampu untuk berpartisipasi dalam proses kolaboratif masih berhak memberikan masukan penuh melalui mekanisme review (uji publik) atau dengar pendapat publik .

E. Menyadari bahwa proses kolaboratif mungkin tidak efektif untuk semua hal.

Perencana dapat mengelola proses perencanaan secara tradisional atau dapat memilih proses perencanaan tradisional, jika upaya kolaboratif tidak efektif atau tidak dapat dilanjutkan

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

www.blm.gov/pgdata/…/planning

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LANDUSE PLANNING: Alokasi Penggunaan

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  Alokasi Penggunaan

 

Penggunaan lahan yang diperbolehkan dan tindakan manajemen untuk mencapai hasil

Setelah menetapkan hasil yang diinginkan, pemerintah mengidentifikasi penggunaan yang diijinkan (alokasi penggunaan lahan) dan alternatif tindakan manajemen untuk mencapai tujuan dan sasaran.

a. Penggunaan yang diijinkan.
Rencana tata guna lahan harus mengidentifikasi penggunaan, atau alokasi, yang diijinkan, dibatasi, atau dilarang pada tanah publik dan real mineral. Alokasi ini mengidentifikasi tanah permukaan dan / atau kepentingan bawah permukaan mineral di mana penggunaan diperbolehkan, termasuk pembatasan yang mungkin diperlukan untuk memenuhi tujuan dan sasaran. Rencana tata guna lahan juga mengidentifikasi tanah mana untuk penggunaan spesifik , yang dikhususkan untuk melindungi nilai-nilai sumber daya. Tanah tertentu mungkin terbuka atau tertutup untuk penggunaan tertentu berdasarkan undang undang, peraturan, atau kebijakan persyaratan atau kriteria,  untuk melindungi nilai-nilai sumberdaya sensitif.

Rencana penggunaan lahan harus mengatur ruang-lingkup untuk mengidentifikasi tingkat penggunaan sumber daya spesifik lokasi. Menggunakan tingkat-situs tertentu biasanya diidentifikasi selama perencanaan pelaksanaan berikutnya atau proses otorisasi izin. Pada tingkat rencana penggunaan lahan , penting untuk mengidentifikasi skenario pembangunan yang wajar untuk penggunaan yang diijinkan, seperti sewa guna lahan untuk usaha mineral, pengembangan lokasi penambangan bahan mineral , lokasi rekreasi, panen kayu, koridor utilitas, dan penggembalaan ternak, sehingga memungkinkan tertib-pelaksanaan tindakan di masa depan. Skenario ini menyediakan konteks untuk keputusan rencana penggunaan lahan dan dasar analitis untuk analisis dampak lingkungan. Pemerintah juga dapat menetapkan kriteria dalam rencana penggunaan lahan untuk memandu identifikasi tingkat penggunaan situs-khusus

 

b. Tindakan manajemen.
Rencana tata guna lahan harus mengidentifikasi tindakan antisipasi untuk mencapai hasil yang diinginkan, termasuk tindakan-tindakan untuk mempertahankan, memulihkan, atau meningkatkan kesehatan lahan. Tindakan ini meliputi langkah-langkah proaktif (misalnya, langkah-langkah yang akan diambil untuk meningkatkan fungsi dan kondisi DAS), serta langkah-langkah atau kriteria yang akan diterapkan untuk memandu sehari-hari kegiatan yang terjadi di lahan publik. Rencana tata guna lahan juga menetapkan fitur-fitur administrasi, merekomendasikan perubahan-perubahan yang diusulkan, zona kepemilikan lahan, dan merekomendasikan atau membuat temuan kesesuaian untuk fitur-fitur tersebut.

Peluang dan prioritas perlindungan dan pemulihan lahan sering berhubungan dengan pengelolaan penggunaan lahan tertentu (seperti ekstraksi komoditas, rekreasi, atau jalan-jalan koridor). Dalam kasus-kasus tertentu, tidak cukup hanya menghapus atau membatasi penggunaan lahan tertentu, karena kondisi sumber daya lahan yang “rusak” mungkin telah berkembang selama jangka waktu yang lama dan tidak akan mungkin dapat memperbaiki “lahan rusak” sendirian tanpa campur tangan manajemen pemerintah. Sebagai contoh, keberadaan spesies eksotik invasif yang sangat luas, mungkin diperlukan tindakan aktif restorasi untuk memulihkan kembali pertumbuhan jenis-jenis tanaman asli .  Dalam kasus seperti ini, mengidentifikasi peluang restorasi dan menetapkan prioritas restorasi merupakan bagian penting dari proses perencanaan penggunaan lahan.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

www.blm.gov/pgdata/…/planning

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LANDUSE PLANNING: Outcomes yang diinginkan

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING:  Outcomes yang diinginkan
Rencana tata guna lahan harus mengidentifikasi hasil-hasil yang diinginkan dan dinyatakan dalam tujuan dan sasaran yang sepsifik.

Tujuan dan sasaran mengarahkan tindakan perencana untuk secara efektif memenuhi semua mandat , berbagai tanggung jawab regulasi, kebijakan nasional, termasuk tujuan Rencana Strategis Pembangunan; Pedoman Direktorat Jenderal, dan sumber daya lain atau kebutuhan sosial.

“Hasil-hasil” yang diinginkan harus diidentifikasi dan berhubungan dengan sumber daya (seperti alam, biologi, dan budaya), penggunaan sumber daya (seperti energi dan penggembalaan ternak), dan faktor lainnya (seperti kondisi sosial dan ekonomi).

Definisi dan contoh-contoh tujuan dan sasaran disajikan di bawah ini:

Goal (sasaran) adalah pernyataan luas dari hasil yang diinginkan (misalnya menjaga kesehatan ekosistem dan produktivitasnya, meningkatkan stabilitas masyarakat, menjamin pembangunan berkelanjutan) yang biasanya tidak terukur.

Pemerintah mengembangkan Standar Kesehatan Land yang berlaku untuk semua ekosistem dan tindakan manajemennya. Standar Kesehatan Lahan ini harus dinyatakan sebagai “sasaran” dalam rencana penggunaan lahan. Sasaran juga dapat ditentukan dari Rencana Strategis Pembangunan atau dari sumber lain.

Contoh Sasaran yang berhubungan dnegan Standard Health Land adalah:

“Memelihara, komunitas tanaman yang produktif dan hewan yang sehat dari spesies asli yang diinginkan dan species lainnya pada tingkat populasi yang layak dan sesuai dnegan kondisi habitat yang ada”.

Contoh Sasaran dari Rencana Strategis Pembangunan adalah:

“Mempertahankan komunitas biologis yang diinginkan pada ekosistem lahan dan air dengan cara yang konsisten dengan kewajiban alokasi lahan dan penggunaan air.”
“Tujuan” mengidentifikasi hasil khusus yang diinginkan untuk sumberdaya. Tujuan ini biasanya dapat dihitung dan terukur dan mungkin telah menetapkan kerangka waktu untuk pencapaiannya.

Contoh “Tujuan”:

“Mengelola komunitas vegetasi di bagian hulu DAS Kritis untuk mencapai , pada tahun 2020, rata-rata 30 sampai 40 persen tutupan tajuk hutan  dan mempertahankan species-species wajib bagi tegakan hutan”

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

www.blm.gov/pgdata/…/planning/planning

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LANDUSE PLANNING : Management Decisions .

December 8th, 2013 No comments

LANDUSE PLANNING : Management Decisions .

Keputusan-keputusan

Ada dua macam keputusan dalam landuse planning, yaitu:  outcomes (hasil) yang diinginkan (tujuan dan sasaran) dan alokasi penggunaan lahan (termasuk pembatasan dan larangan), serta tindakan diantisipasi untuk mencapai hasil yang diinginkan.

Keputusan manajemen tentang isu atau lokasi kegiatan (program atau proyek), membuat atau memperjelas bagaimana keputusan dalam sesatu masalah atau bidang program dapat mempengaruhi pihak lain .


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  1.  Sasaran (goal)  : Mengidentifikasi sasaran tentang kondisi sumberdaya , penggunaan sumberdaya , dan sasaran lain yang sesuai .
  2.  Tujuan (objective) : Mengidentifikasi tujuan dan alasan-alasannya (termasuk sasaran terkait) . Referensi sasaran-sasaran yang dikembangkan dari tujuan .
  3. Tindakan Manajemen: Membuat hal yang adaptif ini menjadi tepat dan praktis . Hubungkan setiap keputusan dengan semua tujuan dan sasaran yang terkena dampak . Bagian ini harus membahas hal-hal yang dianggap spesial dan kepemilikan lahan .

 

  •  Penggunaan yang diijinkan : Hal ini harus mencakup penggunaan yang diijinkan , penggunaan terbatas , dan penggunaan yang dilarang . Memasukkan peta mana lokasi yang sesuai .
  •  Tindakan : Tindakan Manajemen yang akan memandu masa depan dan aktivitas sehari- hari . Fitur desain proyek , ketentuan , praktek pengelolaan terbaik , prosedur operasi standar , dan pedoman harus dimasukkan dalam bagian ini juga.
  •  Pelaksanaan keputusan : Keputusan pelaksanaan yang  terkait dengan keputusan perencanaan penggunaan lahan tertentu .

4 . Pemantauan ( dan manajemen adaptif jika ada) : Uraikan rencana pemantauan untuk menilai kemajuan dalam mencapai tujuan dan sasaran . Jika sesuai , membahas rencana aksi jika pemantauan menunjukkan tindakan tidak memenuhi sasaran dan tujuan atau jika tindakan yang tidak lagi diperlukan .

 

Selengkapnya Lihat:

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LANDUSE PLANNING

December 8th, 2013 No comments
LANDUSE PLANNING


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Proses dimana “LAHAN”  dievaluasi dan dinilai dan hasilnya digunakan sebagai menjadi dasar untuk pengambilan keputusan yang melibatkan disposisi tanah dan pemanfaatan lahan.  Proses-proses ini melibatkan studi tentang dampak lingkungan dari penggunaan lahan dan dampaknya terhadap masyarakat.

LAND DEVELOPMENT
Konversi “lahan mentah” menjadi “LAHA SIAP BANGUN”  untuk perumahan , lokasi komersial, atau bangunan industri. Proses pengembangan lahan ini melibatkan perbaikan yang sifarnya “indefenite” , seperti pengeringan, pengerukan, penggalian, pengurugan, grading, paving, dll.
LAND ERHABILITATION
Proses memulihkan kembali suatu area lahan menjadi seperti keadaan semula setelah mengalami gangguan atau kerusakan. Proses ini memerlukan penghilangan bahan toksik  (polutan) dan zat berbahaya lainnya;  penghilangan struktur-struktur lainnya, dan perbaikan kualitas lahan .  Proses ini biasanya digunakan untuk meluruskan isu-isu yang telah disebabkan oleh proses seperti pengeboran minyak, pertambangan batubara, dan kegiatan lainnya, serta untuk meningkatkan kualitas lahan setelah bencana alam.
Baca lebih lanjut:
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/

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