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PB PERTANIAN DAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

PERTANIAN DAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

Pertanian sangat mempengaruhi banyak sistem ekologi . Efek negatif dari praktek pertanian saat ini adalah :

  1.  Penurunan produktivitas tanah dapat disebabkan oleh erosi angin dan erosi air yang terjadi pada tanah lapisan atas , efek pemadatan tanah , hilangnya bahan organik tanah , menurunnya kapasitas menahan air , dan aktivitas biologis , dan salinasi tanah & air irigasi di daerah pertanian .
  2. Praktek pertanian telah ditemukan berkontribusi sebagai sumber pencemar non -point bagi sumber air, yang meliputi : sedimen , garam , residu pupuk ( nitrat dan fosfor ) , dan residu pestisida. Residu Pestisida kimia sintetis telah terdeteksi dalam air tanah dan biasanya ditemukan dalam air tanah di bawah lahan pertanian ,¬† polutan ini juga tersebar luas di perairan permukaan. Eutrofikasi dan ” zona mati ” karena limpasan permukaan yang kaya sedimen dan hara mempengaruhi banyak sungai, danau , dan lautan . Dampak penurunan kualitas air ini dapat mengurangi produksi pertanian , persediaan air minum , dan produksi perikanan .
  3. Kelangkaan air di banyak tempat adalah karena terlalu sering menggunakan air permukaan dan air bawah tanah untuk irigasi dengan sedikit perhatian untuk memperbaiki siklus air alami yang dapat mempertahankan ketersediaan air .

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  5. Penyakit lingkungan lainnya termasuk lebih dari 400 serangga dan hama tungau dan lebih dari 70 jamur patogen yang menjadi resisten terhadap satu atau lebih pestisida ; tekanan terhadap populasi jasad penyerbuk dan spesies yang menguntungkan lainnya  karena aplikasi pestisida , hilangnya lahan rawa dan habitat satwa liar , mengurangi keragaman genetik karena ketergantungan pada keseragaman genetik tanaman dan ternak .
  6. Keterkaitan Pertanian dnegan perubahan iklim global mulai mendapatkan perhatian serius. Perusakan hutan tropis dan vegetasi asli lainnya untuk produksi pertanian berkontribusi dalam peningkatan kadar karbon dioksida dan gas rumah kaca lainnya . Studi terbaru menemukan bahwa tanah dapat menjadi sumber emisi gas rumah kaca .

 

 

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