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PB PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN — DINAMIKA C/N DALAM TANAH

PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN  –   DINAMIKA C/N DALAM TANAH

 

Agregasi dan stabilisasi bahan organik tanah ( BOT  ) dan N-tanah sangat tergantung pada tekstur tanah dan penambahan sumber bahan organik (BO) . Sementara itu, kualitas BO dapat mempengaruhi stabilisasi BOT dan N-tanah, penambahan N – pupuk secara simultan dapat meningkatkan laju dekomposisi BO dan mengakibatkan hilangnya BOT.

Suatu studi dilakukan pada tanah liat dan tanah berpasir di Kenya ,  untuk mengetahui pengaruh tekstur tanah , kualitas BO N – pupuk terhadap agregasi tanah, BOT dan N-tanah. Biomasa Tithonia diversifolia ( kualitas tinggi ) , Calliandra calothyrsus ( kualitas menengah ) dan Zea mays (biomasa  jagung , kualitas rendah ) ,bahan-bahan  alamiah atau bahan yang diberi label dengan 15N ,  diaplikasikan ke tanah dengan dosis yang setara dengan 4 Mg C / ha dibandingkan dengan kontrol tanpa masukan biomasa.

Setiap perlakuan dipupuk dengan 120 kg 14N atau 15N/ha sebagai ( NH2 ) 2CO) , atau tidak dipupuk. Sampel tanah dikumpulkan pada saat awal percobaan  , dan 8 bulan setelah percobaan.

Tanah dipisahkan menjadi fraksi ukuran agregat yang berbeda dengan analisa saringan basah dan macroaggregates tersebut kemudian difraksionasi untuk mengisolasi microaggregates yang ada  dalam macroaggregates . Jumlah fraksi tanah dan agregat dianalisis untuk mengetahui kandungan BOT dan N-tanah.

Rata-rata, 20 % dan 70 % dari BOT dan N berada dalam macroaggregates pada  tanah berpasir dan lempung.  Tidak ada perbedaan perlakuan kualitas BO pada kedua tanah; tetapi pada  tanah liat semua BO menghasilkan BOT dan N-tanah yang lebih besar daripada perlakuan kontrol . Namun demikian, proporsi N yang berasal dari BO  dalam macroaggregates , terutama dalam microaggregates , lebih besar pada perlakuan aplikasi biomasa jagung pada tanah liat .

Penambahan N – pupuk bersama-sama dengan biomasa jagung mengurangi N-tanah  , N macroaggregate , dan N yang berasal dari BO  di microaggregate, dan mereduksi fraksi debu dan liat dalam macroaggregates,  dibandingkan dengan perlakuan biomasa jagung saja.

Pada  tanah berpasir , aplikasi biomasa Calliandra menghasilkan lebih banyak N yang berasal dari BO , dibandingkan dnegan aplikasi biomasa Tithonia, dalam partikulat bahan organik kasar ( cPOM , yaitu  5 % dibandingkan dengan 2 % dari total aplikasi N ) .

Dengan demikian , konsentrasi polifenol yang lebih besar pada biomasa Calliandra kemungkinan dapat memperlambat dekomposisi BO  Calliandra dibandingkan dengan BO Tithonia .

Selain itu, proporsi yang lebih besar dari N dan N yang berasal dari BO berada dalam macroaggregates di tanah berpasir, sedangkan di tanah liat berada dalam microaggregates.

Konservasi N-tanah yang berasal dari aplikasi biomasa dipengaruhi oleh kimia dari kimiawi biomasa (BO) pada  tanah berpasir , sedangkan pada tanah-tanah liat faktor yang lebih penting adalah perlindungan macroaggregate .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

P. ChivengeB. VanlauweR. Gentile, J. Six. 2011.  Comparison of organic versus mineral resource effects on short-term aggregate carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a sandy soil versus a fine textured soil.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Volume 140, Issues 3–4, March 2011, Pages 361–371.


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