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PENCEMARAN TANAH — STRATEGI FITOREMEDIASI

PENCEMARAN TANAH  — STRATEGI FITOREMEDIASI

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Tanaman memiliki sifat alami yang membuatnya cocok untuk membersihkan tanah yang tercemar , air , dan udara yang tercemar, dengan proses yang disebut fitoremediasi .  Pengujian genetik strategi fitoremediasi berbasis rekayasa untuk polutan merkuri dan arsen,  menggunakan model tanaman Arabidopsis . Tujuan jangka panjangnya adalah untuk mengembangkan dan menguji kekuatan (vigor tanaman) , jenis tanaman yang telah beradaptasi , yang dapat mencegah polutan supaya tidak memasuki rantai makanan dengan jalan mengekstraksnya dari tanah dan disimpan dalam  bagian tanaman di atas tanah.

Untuk mencapai tujuan ini  diawali dengan arsen dan merkuri , dan kemudian membuka jalan bagi remediasi polutan unsur lainnya seperti timah atau radionucleides.  Penelitian dan pengembangan hyperaccumulators dan tanaman model yang direkayasa perlu difokuskan pada delapan bidang kajian:

  1. Toleransi tanaman terhadap unsur-unsur toksik sangat penting jika akar tanaman untuk menembus tanah dan menyerap polutan secara efisien dari tanah yang terkontaminasi . Hanya akar tanaman yang toleran merkuri dan arsenik yang secara efisien dapat kontak dengan substrat yang terkontaminasi dengan unsur-unsur tersebut .
  2. Tanaman mengubah rizosfirnya mereka dengan mengeluarkan berbagai enzim dan molekul kecil , dan dengan menyesuaikan pH dalam rangka meningkatkan ekstraksi hara esnsial dan unsur-unsur beracun . Pengasaman mendorong mobilitas yang lebih besar dan penyerapannya  merkuri dan arsen .
  3. Sistem transportasi jarak pendek untuk nutrisi pada akar dan rambut akar membutuhkan banyak transporter endogen . Sangat mungkin bahwa transporter membran plasma akar untuk besi , tembaga , seng , dan fosfat mengambil ion merkuri dan arsenat .
  4. Keadaan elektrokimia dan species kimia dari polutan dapat meningkatkan mobilitasnya dari akar hingga pucuk tanaman. Data awal menunjukkan bahwa merkuri dan ionik arsenat oxyanion akan menjadi spesies paling mobile dari dua unsur toksik tersebut.
  5.  Transportasi jarak jauh membutuhkan pasokan hara yang efisien dalam xilem akar , gerakan melalui xilem ke daun , dan bongkar muat yang efisien dalam xilem di atas tanah . Sistem ini dapat ditingkatkan untuk pergerakan arsen dan merkuri .
  6. Kontrol di atas tanah kondisi elektrokimia dan species kimia polutan akan memaksimalkan kapasitas penyimpanan dalam daun, batang , dan jaringan vaskular . Penelitian menunjukkan ion Hg ( II ) dan arsenit akan menjadi spesies kimia terbaik untuk menjadi penjebak di atas tanah .
  7. Gudang kimiawi dapat meningkatkan kapasitas penyimpanan hara penting seperti besi , seng, tembaga , sulfat , dan fosfat . Asam organik dan chelators kaya tiol adalah salah satu penyerap kimia yang dapat maksimal menangkap merkuri dan arsen .
  8. Gudang fisik, seperti vakuola subselular , sel-sel epidermis trikoma , dan unsur-unsur vaskular telah menunjukkan kapasitas untuk menyimpan sejumlah besar polutan beracun pada berbagai hyperaccumulators . Transporter tanaman tertentu mungkin sudah mengenali konjugasi gluthione dari Hg ( II ) atau arsenit dan memompanya ke dalam vakuola .

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

Richard B. Meagher, dan Andrew C. P. Heaton. 2005. Strategies for the engineered phytoremediation of toxic element pollution: mercury and arsenic.Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. December 2005, Volume 32, Issue 11-12, pp 502-513.

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