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PENCEMARAN TANAH — SPESIES FITOREMEDIASI

PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  SPESIES FITOREMEDIASI

Untuk mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis tanaman dengan kemampuan tinggi untuk mengakumulasi logam berat, 300 aksesi dari 30 spesies tanaman diuji dalam hidroponik selama 4 minggu, umumnya memiliki tingkat moderat menyerap Cd, Cu dan Zn.
Banyak jenis tanaman Brasssica spp. , seperti B. juncea L., B. juncea L. Czern, B. napus L. dan B. rapa L. , cukup mampu menyerap Zn dan akumulasi Cd.
Mereka ini juga paling efektif dalam menghilangkan Zn dari tanah yang terkontaminasi. Sampai saat ini, lebih dari 400 spesies tanaman telah diidentifikasi sebagai hyperaccumulators logam, yang mewakili kurang dari 0,2% dari semua angiosperma.
Spesies tanaman yang telah diidentifikasi untuk remediasi tanah meliputi tanaman yang menghasilkan banyak biomassa seperti willow , atau jenis tanaman yang memiliki produksi biomassa rendah tetapi karakteristik hyperaccumulating tinggi , seperti spesies-spesies Thlaspi dan Arabidopsis .
Jumlah spesies yang diidentifikasi memiliki kemampuan untuk mengakumulasi satu atau lebih logam > 1000 mg / kg berat kering telah terdaftar.
Jenis-jenis tanaman hyperaccumulators yang paling banyak dipelajari oleh komunitas ilmiah adalah Thlaspi sp . , Arabidopsis sp . , Sedum alfredii sp . ( kedua genera dari keluarga Brassicaceae dan Alyssum ) .

Thlaspi sp. diketahui hyperaccumulate lebih dari satu logam , yaitu , T. caerulescens untuk Cd , Ni , Pb dan Zn , sedangkan  T. goesingense untuk Ni dan Zn ;  T. ochroleucum untuk Ni dan Zn ;   T. rotundifolium untuk Ni , Pb dan Zn .

Di antara genus Thlaspi , tanaman hiperakumulator  Thlaspi caerulescens mendapat banyak perhatian dan telah dipelajari secara ekstensif sebagai calon potensial untuk menyembuhkan tanah yang terkontaminasi Cd dan Zn.
T. caerulescens sebagai hiperakumulator untuk Cd dan Zn bisa menyerap sebanyak 60 kg Zn / ha dan 8,4 kg Cd / ha . Hal ini dapat mengakumulasi sebesar 2600 × 10-6 Zn tanpa menunjukkan cedera apapun dan mampu mengekstrak hingga 22 % dari tanah Cd-tukar dari tanah yang terkontaminasi . Hal ini juga menunjukkan toleransi Cd yang luar biasa .

T. caerulescens memiliki serapan yang lebih tinggi dari Cd karena strategi perakarannya spesifik dan tingkat serapan yang tinggi ,  akibat adanya saluran transportasi Cd – spesifik dalam membran sel akarnya .

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Mohammad Iqbal LoneZhen-li HePeter J. Stoffella,  and Xiao-e Yang.  2008.  Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives. J. Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008 March; 9(3): 210–220.

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