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PENCEMARAN TANAH — Logam Berat


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PENCEMARAN TANAH  –  Logam Berat

 

Pencemaran tanah akibat aktivitas penambangan di masa lalu menjadi masalah lingkungan yang serius di berbagai lokasi.  Misalnya, di  The Aljustrel Tambang ( SW Portugal ) , yang terletak di sektor barat dari Iberia Pyrite Belt ( IBP ) menyajikan dampak lingkungan negatif (visual) sebagai konsekuensi dari kegiatan pertambangan yang sudah berkembang sejak zaman Romawi . Dampaknya juga terjadi pada kualitas hidup penduduk . Pemaparan pirit dan sulfida lainnya ke udara bertanggung jawab atas terjadinya polusi tanah , air permukaan dan sedimen sungai .

Penelitian dilakukan untuk meneliti beban pencemaran dari unsur-unsur beracun potensial dalam sampel tanah yang dikumpulkan di sekitar area pertambangan Aljustrel . Penilaian tingkat kontaminasi tanah dilakukan sehubungan dengan konsentrasi rata-rata unsur-unsur beracun di wilayah tersebut dan memahami distribusinya dan ketersediaan polutan di lokasi .

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kontaminasi tanah yang parah  ( terutama As, Cd , Cu , Pb dan Zn ) . Konsentrasi As ( hingga 3936 mg /kg) dan logam berat tertentu ( hingga 5414 mg/kg Cu , 61,6 mg/kg Cd , 20 000 mg /kg Pb dan 20 000 mg/kg Zn) adalah dua kali lipat di atas nilai yang ada di daerah South Portugis Zone ( SPZ ) . Konsentrasi median dari As, Cd , Cu , Pb dan Zn melebihi nilai yang ditetapkan untuk baku mutu tanah di duniadunia , Uni Eropa , Portugal dan Andalusia .

Pola distribusi Co , Cr dan Ni dalam tanah dipengaruhi oleh sifat litologi dan geokimia dari batuan induk. Sebagian dari kandungan logam berat yang ada dalam tanah berasal dari batuan induk.

 

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C. Candeias,  E. Ferreira da Silva,  A.R. Salgueiro,  H.G. Pereira,  A.P. Reis,  C. Patinha,  J.X. Matos,  P.H. Ávila. 2011. Assessment of soil contamination by potentially toxic elements in the aljustrel mining area in order to implement soil reclamation strategies. Land Degradation & Development. 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