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DIT PENCEMARAN TANAH — LOGAM BERAT

PENCEMARAN  TANAH  –  LOGAM BERAT

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Logam berat secara konvensional didefinisikan sebagai elemen dengan sifat logam (daktilitas, konduktivitas, stabilitas sebagai kation, ligan spesifisitas, dll) dan nomor atom > 20.  Kontaminan logam berat adalah Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb dan Ni. Logam merupakan komponen alami dalam tanah dengan sejumlah logam dibutuhkan oleh tanaman sebagai mikronutrien. Namun demikian , polusi biosfer oleh logam beracun telah dipercepat secara dramatis sejak awal revolusi industri. Sebagai akibat dari aktivitas manusia seperti pertambangan dan peleburan logam, elektroplating, buang gas, energi dan produksi bahan bakar, pupuk, limbah dan aplikasi pestisida, limbah kota, dll, pencemaran logam telah menjadi salah satu masalah lingkungan yang paling parah pada saat ini .

Akumulasi logam berat yang berlebihan merupakan racun bagi kebanyakan tanaman . Ion logam berat, ketika hadir dalam jumlah yang banyak dalam lingkungan, dapat diserap oleh akar dan ditranslokasi ke daun, menyebabkan metabolisme terganggu dan mengurangi pertumbuhan tanaman. Kontaminasi logam berat terhadap air dan tanah menjadi masalah utama kesehatan lingkungan dan manusia . Selain itu, konsentrasi logam yang berlebihan di tanah yang terkontaminasi menyebabkan penurunan aktivitas mikroba tanah dan kesuburan tanah , dan kehilangan hasil tanaman.

Cadmium , sebagai hara non – esensial , logam berat beracun untuk tanaman ,  dapat menghambat akar dan pertumbuhan tunas , mempengaruhi serapan hara dan homeostasis , dan sering diakumulasi oleh tanaman pertanian penting .

Kalau produk tanaman yang kaya Cd dikonsumsi oleh hewan dan manusia , dapat menyebabkan gangguan penyakit . Pada kondisi dimana polusi Cd tanah bersifat kumulatif dengan tingkat semakin parah dari waktu ke waktu , tanah pada akhirnya menjadi tidak dapat digunakan untuk produksi tanaman . Demikian pula , kontaminasi tanah dengan Cd dapat mempengaruhi keanekaragaman hayati dan aktivitas komunitas mikroba tanah.
Percobaan menunjukkan bahwa biji tanaman canola dapat berkembang normal hingga 1 mmol / L  NiCl, tetapi akar tanaman dan tajuk tanaman terhambat pertumbuhannya pada tingkat Ni yang lebih tinggi .

 

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