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PANEN AIR HUJAN DAN HIDROLOGI DAS


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PANEN AIR HUJAN DAN HIDROLOGI DAS

 

Sepanjang jalurnya air mengalir dalam suatu  DAS, banyak intervensi manusia yang berhubungan dengan air yang memodifikasi sistem alamiah . Pemanenan air hujan merupakan salah satu intervensi tersebut yang melibatkan pemanfaatan air hujan di DAS bagian hulu . Peningkatan penggunaan air di hulu DAS merupakan isu yang memprihatinkan bagi ketersediaan air di hilir DAS, untuk mempertahankan jasa ekosistem DAS. The bagian hulu dari Modder River basin , yang terletak di daerah semi kering di Afrika Selatan , mengalami kekeringan meteorologi intermiten, hal ini  menyebabkan kekurangan air untuk pertanian , peternakan dan kebutuhan air domestik .
Untuk mengatasi masalah ini dikembangkan teknik-teknik bagi petani skala kecil dengan tujuan memanfaatkan air hujan untuk produksi tanaman . Namun demikian, dampak hidrologi dari adopsi yang lebih luas dari teknik ini oleh petani belum dihitung dengan baik . Dalam hal ini , model hidrologi SWAT digunakan untuk mensimulasikan dampak hidrologi dari praktek-praktek tersebut .
Skenario yang diteliti adalah : ( 1 ) skenario baseline , berdasarkan penggunaan lahan aktual tahun 2000, yang didominasi oleh padang rumput ( kombinasi alam dan beberapa lahan rumput buatan) (PAST) , (2 ) konversi parsial penggunaan lahan 2000 (PAST) pertanian konvensional ( Agri – CON ) , dan ( 3 ) konversi parsial penggunaan lahan 2000 ( PAST) untuk menampung air hujan di lapangan yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan presipitasi ( Agri – IRWH ) .

SWAT dikalibrasi menggunakan data yang diamati setiap hari aliran sub -DAS ( 419 km2 ) di daerah penelitian . SWAT dapat melakukan simulasi dengan baik aliran sungai dengan memberikan indeks eficienasi (Nash dan Sutcliffe , 1970 ) sebesar 0,57, untuk kalibrasi aliran sungai bulanan .
Hasil simulasi neraca air menunjukkan bahwa puncak tertinggi aliran langsung bulanan diperoleh pada penggunaan lahan Agri – CON ( 18 mm ) , diikuti oleh PAST ( 12 mm ) dan Agri – IRWH penggunaan lahan ( 9 mm ), yaitu sebesar 19 % , 13 % dan 11 % dari curah hujan tahunan rata-rata.

Skenario Agri – IRWH mengurangi aliran langsung sebesar 38 % dibandingkan dengan Agri – CON . Di sisi lain ditemukan bahwa kontribusi Skenario Agri – IRWH terhadap aliran air tanah lebih banyak ( 40 mm ) dibandingkan dengan PAST ( 32 mm ) dan Agri – CON ( 19 mm ) .

Hasil ini sejalan dengan tujuan dari skenario Agri – IRWH . Meskipun ada dampak yang muncul akibat teknik pemanenan air hujan terhadap hasil air (pada kerangka waktu bulanan) DAS, namun hasil secara keseluruhan menunjukkan bahwa hasil air pada DAS ini tidak terpengaruh oleh skenario penggunaan lahan Agri-IRWH, meskipun ada abstraksi limpasan permukaan .

 

Sumber:  Welderufael, W. A., Woyessa, Y. E., and Edossa, D. C. 2011.  Hydrological impact of rainwater harvesting in the Modder river basin of central South Africa.  Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 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