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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – OLAH TANAH DAN MULSA PERMUKAAN

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN  – MULSA PERMUKAAN

 

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan pertanian dapat menyebabkan pemadatan tahnah dan degradasi sifat fisik tanah . Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menilai dampak pemadatan tanah akibat  lalu lintas kendaraan di atas tanah selama 5 tahun .

Sebuah traktor dengan ukuran poros berat 40 kN digunakan untuk menerapkan lalu lintas di berbagai wheelslip pada tanah liat dengan berbagai kondisi residu penutup permukaan untuk mensimulasikan efek lalu lintas operasi kendaraan dalam sistem produksi gandum di Australia bagian utara.  Sebuah simulator curah hujan digunakan untuk mempelajari karakteristik infiltrasi air hujan.

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan secara signifikan mengurangi waktu untuk mencapai penggenangan , laju infiltrasi konstan, dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tanah tanpa lalu-lintas  roda kendaraan, dengan atau tanpa adanya residu penutup permukaan.

Tanah “non-roda kendaraan” memiliki 4-5 kali lebih besar laju infiltrasi konstan dibandingkan dengan tanah dengan “roda kendaraan” , tidak tergantung pada kondisi residu penutup tanah. Perlakuan Wheelslip menurunkan lebih dari 10% laju infiltrasi konstan dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan  3 % wheelslip,  pada kondisi ada residu penutup tanah.

Dalam kondisi tidak ada pemadatan akibat roda kendaraan , residu penutup tanah memiliki efek lebih besar terhadap kapasitas infiltrasi , dengan laju infiltrasi konstan meningkat secara proporsional dengan residu penutup tanah ( R2 = 0,98 ) . Residu penutup tanah, mempunyai lebih sedikit efek terhadap infiltrasi air hujan kalau ada efek roda kendaraan.

Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa laju infiltrasi air hujan untuk tanah “non-roda” pada kondisi tanpa-olah tanah ternyata mirip dengan kondisi tanah perawan .

Namun demikian, ketika tanah diolah dnegan roda-traktor kelas menengah , laju infiltrasi air  hujan menurun.  Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa lalu lintas roda-kendaraan , mungkin menjadi faktor utama yang mengendalikan infiltrasi air hujan.

Sistem pertanian dengan lalu lintas roda-kendaraan yang terbatas, dikombinasikan dengan konservasi tanah , merupakan cara untuk keberlanjutan pertanaman pada  tanah ini, meningkatkan infiltrasi , peningkatan air tersedia , dan mengurnagi erosi tanah dan limpasan permukaan.

 

SUMBER:

Yuxia Li, J. N. Tullberg and D. M. Freebairn. 2001. Traffic and residue cover effects on infiltration.  

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Australian Journal of Soil Research 39(2) 239 – 247.

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