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INDEKS TOLERANSI POLUSI UDARA

INDEKS TOLERANSI POLUSI UDARA – SPECIES JALUR HIJAU

Tanaman merupakan bagian yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari semua ekosistem dan kemungkinan besar akan terpengaruh oleh polusi udara, tanaman ini diidentifikasi sebagai organisme yang paling potensial menerima dampak dari polusi udara ambien. Gejala akibat efek polusi udara ini sering muncul pada daun, biasanya daun ini kumlahnya (luas permukaannya) paling  banyak dan menjadi reseptor utama dari polutan udara. Biomonitoring tanaman merupakan alat penting untuk mengevaluasi dampak dari polusi udara. Oleh karena itu vegetasi perkotaan menjadi semakin penting, tidak hanya berkaitan dnegan kehidupan social-ekonomi masyarakat kota,  tetapi menjadi sarana untuk mengendalikan kualitas udara kota. Respon tanaman terhadap polusi udara dapat dinilai dengan menggunakan Indeks Toleransi Polusi Udara (APTI).

 

Informasi ini sangat berharga bagi para landscapers dan disainer jalur-hijau dalam memilih species tanaman yang sensitif dan species yang toleran, dalam rangka untuk mengidentifikasi beban polusi daerah perkotaan, dan juga untuk menggunakan species toleran untuk mengendalikan bahaya polusi udara. Hasil-hasil penelitian para pakar menunjukkan bahwa tanaman dengan nilai APTI lebih tinggi ternyata lebih tahan terhadap polusi udara.

 

Untuk mengoptimalkan kegunaan tanaman sebagai bioindicator diperlukan cara pemilihan yang tepat spesies tanaman yang sesuai dnegan situasi tertentu. Jissy Jyothi dan Jaya. (2010) melakukan penelitian untuk mengevaluasi secara periodik Indeks toleransi polusi Udara [Air Pollution Tolerance Index ] beberapa jenis pohon, yaitu Polyalthia longifolia , Alstonia scholaris , Mangifera indica , dan semak Clerodendron infortunatum ,  Eupatorium odoratum , dan Hyptis suaveolens. Jenis-jenis tanaman ini tumbuh berdekatan dengan National Highway yang melewati Thiruvananthapuram yang terletak di pantai selatan – barat India. Penelitin ini dilakukan untuk menemukan toleransi dan sensitivitas species tanaman terhadap polusi udara selama musim yang berbeda . Di antara jenis pohon-pohon ini ternyata Polyalthia longifolia mempunyai nilai APTI tertinggi dan terbukti menjadi jenis yang toleran; sedangkan species lainnya ternyata sensitif terhadap polusi udara. Dalam hal jenis-jenis semak , Clerodendron infortunatum mempunyai nilai APTI tertinggi (7.34 ) dan lebih toleran dibandingkan dengan dua spesies semak lainnya.

 

Indeks toleransi polusi udara [APTI] dihitung dengan metode yang diusulkan oleh Singh dan Rao (1983), menggunakan persamaan:

 

[ A (T+P)] + R

APTI = ————————-

10

 

Dimana: A : asam askorbat (mg g-1 bobot segar), T: jumlah klorofil (mg g-1 bobot segar), P: nilai pH ekstrak daun ; dan R: kadar air relatif (%) daun.

 

Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tanaman memiliki potensi untuk berfungsi sebagai indeks kuantitatif dan indeks kualitatif yang baik dari polusi udara . Biomonitoring tanaman merupakan alat penting untuk mengevaluasi dampak polusi udara terhadap tanaman. Jenis-jenis tanaman Mangifera indica, L.;  Alstonia scholaris, R. Br.;  Eupatorium odoratum, L.;  dan Hyptis suaveolens, (L.) poit., dapat digunakan sebagai biomonitors dari polusi udara akibat kendaraan bermotor.

 

Spesies pohon yang toleran adalah

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Polyalthia longifolia, (Sonner) Thw., dan species semak yang toleran adalah Clerodendron infortunatum, L. ; keduanya dapat secara efektif digunakan dalam upaya pengendalian polusi udara perkotaan.

 

Referensi:

 

Jissy Jyothi, S. dan D.S. Jaya. 2010. Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of selected plant species along roadsides in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Journal of Environmental Biology. May 2010,  31: 379-386.

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