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SISTEM EKOLOGI : EKOSISTEM

Ekosistem adalah suatu sistem ekologi yang terbentuk oleh hubungan timbal-balik antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungan hidupnya. Ekosistem dapat dikatakan juga sebagai suatu tatanan kesatuan secara utuh dan menyeluruh antara segenap unsur lingkungan hidup yang saling mempengaruhi. Ilmu yang mempelajari ekosistem disebut ekologi. Istilah “Ekologi” berasal dari dua kata dalam bahasa Yunani

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, yaitu oikos dan logos. “Oikos” artinya ‘rumah atau tempat tinggal’, dan “logos” artinya ‘ilmu’. Istilah ‘ekologi’ pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Ernst Haeckel (18341914). Ekologi merupakan cabang ilmu yang masih relatif baru, yang baru muncul berkembang pada tahun 70-an. Akan tetapi, ekologi mempunyai pengaruh yang sangat besar terhadap cabang biologinya. Ekologi mempelajari bagaimana makhluk hidup dapat mempertahankan kehidupannya dengan mengadakan hubungan atar makhluk hidup (biotik) dan dengan benda tak-hidup (abiotik) di dalam tempat hidupnya atau lingkungannya………..

 

Para ahli ekologi senang mempelajari hal-hal berikut:

  1. Perpindahan energi dan materi dari makhluk hidup yang satu kepada makhluk hidup lainnya dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya.
  2. Dinamika populasi atau spesies pada waktu yang berbeda dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya
  3. Hubungan antar spesies (interaksi antar spesies) dan hubungan antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya.

 

Komponen-komponen pembentuk ekosistem adalah:

Komponen hidup (biotik)

Komponen tak hidup (abiotik)

 

Kedua komponen tersebut berada pada suatu tempat dan berinteraksi membentuk suatu kesatuan yang teratur. Misalnya, pada suatu ekosistem akuarium, ekosistem ini terdiri dari ikan, tumbuhan air, plankton yang melayang-layang dalam air sebagai komponen biotik;  sedangkan yang termasuk komponen abiotik adalah air, pasir, batu, mineral dan oksigen yang terlarut dalam air.

Ekosistem atau sistem ekologi ialah satu unit tunggal dari komunitas tumbuhan dan hewan bersama-sama, dengan semua interaksi faktor-faktor fisik lingkungan yang ada di dalamnya. Secara sederhana ekosistem adalah suatu sistem yang di dalamnya terdapat interaksi antara faktor-faktor biotik dan abiotik. Ekosistem terdiri atas komponen-komponen yang saling berintegrasi sehingga membentuk suatu kesatuan. Sistem tersebut mempunyai sifat tertentu, tergantung pada jumlah dan jenis komponen yang menyusunnya. Besar-kecilnya ukuran ekosistem tergantung pada pandangan dan batas yang diberikan pada ekosistem tersebut. Daerah aliran sungai dapatlah dianggap sebagai suatu ekosistem.

Dalam suatu ekosistem tidak ada satu komponenpun yang berdiri sendiri, melainkan ia mempunyai keterkaitan dengan komponen lain, langsung atau tidak langsung, besar atau kecil. Aktivitas suatu komponen ekosistem selalu memberi pengaruh pada komponen ekosistem yang lain. Manusia adalah salah satu komponen yang penting. Sebagai komponen yang dinamis, manusia dalam menjalankan aktivitasnya seringkali mengakibatkan dampak pada salah satu komponen lingkungan, dan dengan demikian, mempengaruhi ekosistem secara keseluruhan. Selama hubungan timbal-balik antar komponen ekosistem dalam keadaan seimbang, selama itu pula ekosistem berada dalam kondisi stabil. Sebaliknya, kalau hubungan timbal-balik antar komponen-komponen lingkungan mengalami gangguan, maka terjadilah gangguan ekologis. Gangguan ini pada dasarnya adalah gangguan pada arus-materi, arus-energi dan arus-informasi antar komponen ekosistem yang tidak seimbang.

Ekosistem harus dilihat secara holistik, yaitu dengan cara mengidentifikasi komponen-komponen kunci penyusun ekosistem serta menelaah interaksi antar komponen-komponen tersebut. Pendekatan holistik dilakukan agar pemanfaatan dan konservasi sumberdaya alam dapat dilakukan secara efisien dan efektif, syarat yang diperlukan bagi terwujutnya pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam untuk pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.

 

 

 

Bgm mengelola ekosistem untyuk melestarikan njasa-jasanya? …….. ………….bersambung:smno.psdl.ppsub.2013

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